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Archives for Global Health

Women are Women: Responding to the Health Needs of Female Sex Workers

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. During this time IMPACT will highlight USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence.

Mpiluka is a 29-year-old bar worker in Iringa, Tanzania. A single mother to an 11-year-old girl, she supplements her low monthly salary by selling charcoal and sex. Mpiluka fears the heightened risk of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI), and unwanted pregnancy that she knows exists among female sex workers. But the harsh realities of sex work in this setting – the social, economic, and physical complexities of the negotiation of sex – make it difficult for her to use condoms as protection. Some men dislike condoms, offering double or triple the price for sex without. Others become violent if she insists. Recently, when Mpiluka confronted a client on condom use, she was beaten with a rock and robbed. The likelihood that Mpiluka has faced violence from her husband or boyfriend and that her daughter might also face violence in her life is significant.

Thank you for following our #16Days campaign.

Thank you for following our #16Days campaign.

Mpiluka’s story is not uncommon, and reveals the complex intersection of violence, reproductive health, and HIV faced by sex workers around the world. Historically, female sex workers of reproductive age have been considered a key population for HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs, and are 13.5 times more likely to be living with HIV than other women of reproductive age. While some prevention and treatment programs for sex workers do exist, they focus primarily on individual-level risk factors for HIV acquisition and transmission.  Unreliable access to contraception and reproductive health services remains a significant challenge for many sex workers, like Mpiluka, who face high levels of sexual and physical violence. Evidence has shown that these factors are related to increased risk of HIV.

Over the past five years, the Research to Prevention (R2P) project, funded by PEPFAR through USAID, has demonstrated a clear need for policies and programming that address the multiple levels of influence on HIV risk among female sex workers, including their risk of violence and need for comprehensive reproductive health services. One study of female sex workers in four West African countries revealed high levels of sexual and physical violence experienced across these settings, including 45 percent in Togo to over 70 percent in Burkina Faso. Fifty-one percent of female sex workers in Togo who did not want to become pregnant were not accessing a reliable method of contraception, often due to discrimination and fear experienced by the women seeking health services.

The recently launched WHO guidance on prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections for sex workers in low-and middle-income countries is informed by evidence for interventions that address these broader needs. Interventions that address violence and empower sex workers are primary recommendations for sex worker programming, and reproductive health is a standard component of the clinical package outlined in global implementation guidance. The guidance harmonizes and strengthens a robust response for sex workers globally and forms the basis for USAID and PEPFAR programming.

As we mark the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence, it is important that we remember women like Mpiluka. It is not enough for HIV programs to address individual-level factors in HIV transmission among female sex workers; they must also acknowledge the high risk of violence and varied reproductive needs of these populations around the globe.

Video of the Week: USAID and Nelson Mandela

This is a video of Nelson Mandela announcing a partnership with USAID on the AIDS Response Partnership in Durban, 2000. We continue to join with the world as it mourns the loss of Nelson Mandela.

Vice President of Ghana Oversees Launch of Online System to Fight HIV-Related Discrimination

On December 2 at World AIDS Day observations in Ghana, His Excellency Vice President Kwesi Bekoe Amissah-Arthur presided over the launch of a new web-based system for reporting HIV-related discrimination. The system will support people living with HIV and other key populations in upholding their rights and fighting discrimination.

In Ghana, as in many other countries, HIV-related discrimination remains an unfortunate reality. People living with or affected by HIV experience unfair and unjust treatment that affect many areas of their lives, from employment to travel to health, and often act as a barrier to accessing potentially life-saving HIV prevention, treatment, and care services.

The Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice's launch of Ghana's new discrimination reporting system. Photo credit: Health Policy Project/Futures Group

The Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice’s launch of Ghana’s new discrimination reporting system. Photo credit: Health Policy Project/Futures Group

Using the new discrimination reporting system, individuals and organizations will now be able to report such discriminatory treatment directly to Ghana’s Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ). Cases of HIV-related discrimination can be reported online at or via SMS. Following case submission, a CHRAJ point of contact receives the complaint and has ten days to respond to the person who submitted the complaint. While mediation is the preferred method of handling complaints, CHRAJ also has investigation and litigation authority as well.

The creation of the system reflects a growing appreciation that discrimination faced by people living with HIV and key populations — including men who have sex with men, sex workers, and people who inject drugs — undermines human rights and quality of life.

Managed by CHRAJ, the discrimination reporting system is the product of a partnership among CHRAJ, the Ghana AIDS Commission, and governmental and non-governmental stakeholders, with support from the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Health Policy Project. Reflecting this partnership, Vice President Amissah-Arthur was joined at the launch event by Commissioner of CHRAJ Lauretta Vivian Lamptey, Director-General of the Ghana AIDS Commission Dr. Angela El-Adas, U.S. Ambassador to Ghana Gene A. Cretz, and other dignitaries.

In his remarks, Ambassador Cretz noted: “the U.S. government is proud to work with the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice and the Ghana AIDS Commission in building systems that ensure that those affected by HIV-related stigma and discrimination have legal recourse in seeking support in protection of their rights.”

The reporting system improves accountability by fostering greater collaboration among CHRAJ, the Ghana AIDS Commission, and civil society organizations. In addition to serving as a reporting mechanism, features of the system such as case tracking enable registered organizations to monitor the progress of complaints. This will not only help those who have experienced discrimination gain access to redress if their complaints are legally actionable; it will also help link them with relevant social services.

More broadly, capturing cases of discrimination will provide an important source of data on discrimination for policymakers and advocates alike, arming them with information to take further action to fight HIV-related discrimination in the future.

Transforming Gender Norms and Ending Child Marriage: The Role of Boys

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. During this time IMPACT will highlight USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence.

Child marriage has recently gained heightened attention by donors, researchers, activists, program implementers, and policymakers. The international community has increasingly recognized child marriage as a violation of girls’ rights, health, and well-being, and efforts to prevent and respond to child marriage have prioritized critical “hot spots” where the practice is particularly grave and widespread. Yet, it is also crucial to shed light on a current “blind spot” in these efforts: the role of boys in ending child marriage.

When males are included in strategies and interventions to address child marriage, the focus is mostly on the key role that men play as powerful gatekeepers: fathers and religious and community leaders, whose support must be galvanized to intervene on behalf of girls. The forward-looking USAID Vision for Action on Child Marriage, for example, includes engaging men as an important part of mobilizing communities to shift norms that perpetuate child marriage. But the Vision does not stop there; it further states that, “equally important is reaching out to boys at a young age to encourage equitable gender attitudes and norms so that they can be allies in preventing child marriage and change agents within their communities.” This aspect of male engagement is usually not highlighted in child marriage discussions, yet raises a vital question: What needs to happen to create a generation of boys that resists and rejects child marriage for themselves in the future?

A young girl.  Photo Credit: Kendra Helmer/USAID

The international community has increasingly recognized child marriage as a violation of girls’ rights, health, and well-being, and efforts to prevent and respond to child marriage have prioritized critical “hot spots” where the practice is particularly grave and widespread. Yet, it is also crucial to shed light on a current “blind spot” in these efforts: the role of boys in ending child marriage. Photo Credit: Kendra Helmer/USAID

This “demand-side” orientation requires long-term investments aimed at changing the social and behavioral gender norms that drive child marriage. What if all future men refused to marry a child bride? Though directly addressing this side of the equation is seldom mentioned, there are promising interventions with young girls and boys that seek to transform gender attitudes and behaviors with the goal of promoting gender equality more broadly. One example is the USAID-funded Gender Roles, Equality, and Transformation (GREAT) project.

Although GREAT does not directly address child marriage, it works with adolescents (ages 10-19) and their communities to reduce gender-based violence and improve reproductive health in Uganda. Building on the CHOICES project in Nepal, GREAT recognizes early adolescence as a window of opportunity—a time when the formation of gender norms and identities is taking place. The project utilizes participatory activities to engage young girls and boys in gender equality discussions. For example, project staff ask young girls and boys to pile-sort cards representing various household and community tasks, to show who is responsible for them. Girls and boys (including sisters and brothers) see the pile of tasks assigned to girls steadily grow larger than the boys’ pile. The activity prompts conversations about fairness, as boys remark on the larger burden carried by their sisters.

These types of “a-ha” moments are crucial entryways to deeper critical reflections that can begin a journey towards gender equality. By tapping into young boys’ sense of justice at a very young age, interventions such as these, which seek to transform gender norms early in the process of childhood development, hold the promise of shaping a future generation of men as allies in wiping out child marriage globally.

To Win the Fight Against AIDS, We Must First Defeat TB

This week, tremendous and unprecedented progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS is being celebrated around the world by the HIV and AIDS community. The world has definitely made crushing AIDS a top priority and we’ve been able to accomplish what many would have said 15 years ago was impossible. But let’s not forget that if the dream of making this the generation that defeats AIDS is to become reality, we must also tackle the leading killer of people with HIV – tuberculosis (TB).

The overlap of TB and HIV is a deadly combination with tragic consequences. TB is the leading killer of people with HIV, accounting for one in four HIV-related deaths. Globally, one-third of the 34 million people living with HIV is infected with TB, and if left unchecked and untreated, TB can kill a person with HIV/AIDS in a matter of weeks. Furthermore, the alarming increase in multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) threatens to reverse progress made against HIV/AIDS despite our efforts to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goals related to TB.

To mark World TB Day 2013 in Ethiopia the Minister of Health, joined by USAID and partners in the fight against TB, watch a role play created to raise public awareness about getting tested and fishing the prescribed course of treatment. Photo by Karen Ottoni/USAID Ethiopia

To mark World TB Day 2013 in Ethiopia the Minister of Health, joined by USAID and partners in the fight against TB, watch a role play created to raise public awareness about getting tested and fishing the prescribed course of treatment.
Photo by Karen Ottoni/USAID Ethiopia

Pressing public health challenges like this demand our collective and immediate attention. Today, the Global Fund is on the second and final day of its fourth Replenishment Conference in Washington D.C. Hosted by the United States government, this meeting is a pivotal opportunity for donor countries to increase their pledges over the next three years to bring treatment and hope for HIV, TB and malaria to some of the world’s most underserved and heavily disease-burdened populations.

In his remarks at the Global Fund Partnership Symposium yesterday, Secretary Kerry reminded global leaders that the goal of eliminating TB deaths in our lifetime is achievable if we make the commitment and stay the course – “TB is curable, and make no mistake: With the right effort and the right focus, the right energy, we can eliminate it.”

Bold steps of commitment by the global community will indeed strengthen our fight against TB and will give countries the tools, particularly life-saving commodities, to reduce the spread of TB, cure people suffering with TB, and prevent the further development of MDR-TB.  We need new drugs and tools that are safe and effective for people with TB, MDR-TB, and those co-infected with TB and HIV.  The U.S. Government has worked together across agencies in the introduction and implementation of the new Xpert diagnostic.  The Xpert MTB/RIF assay can detect TB more accurately than current methods, particularly among people co-infected with TB/HIV and can be a reliable proxy for MDR-TB.  USAID is also working with partners to improve the currently toxic and lengthy MDR-TB treatment regimen as well as the availability and price of existing second line drugs.  Most importantly, USAID and others are working together to prevent the spread of TB within communities and improve access to curable treatment for the most vulnerable and poor populations.

Simply put, we have a historic opportunity to turn the tide on an age-old killer that has plagued mankind for generations. By the global community banding together with resources and endorsements to meet the challenge, the goal of ending TB deaths in our lifetime is within our reach.

Video of the Week: Gift’s Last 10 Years

USAID is observing World AIDS Day this year by celebrating ten years of our HIV and AIDS work under PEPFAR.

Meet Gift. Today is her 10th birthday and she is celebrating the past decade of her life free of HIV. Thanks to life-saving antiretroviral (ARV) drugs funded by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Gift’s mom – who has been living with HIV – was able to protect Gift from the virus when she was born 10 years ago. Gift's 10th Birthday

Thanks to ARVs, support and care from their local community, and access to other preventive health services, such as voluntary medical male circumcision, Gift and her family have been empowered to live healthy and happy lives.

VIDEO: World AIDS Day 2013: Gift’s Last 10 Years

Note: Gift is a fictional character representing families and communities around the world affected by HIV and AIDS.

Follow @USAIDGH on Twitter through World AIDS Day, observed on December 2, for key facts, resources, and photos from our programs and partners and join the conversation using the hashtag #WAD2013.

Ancestors and Antiretrovirals: The Biopolitics of HIV/AIDS in Post-Apartheid South Africa

 USAID is observing World AIDS Day this year by celebrating ten years of our HIV and AIDS work under PEPFAR.

Book Review: “Ancestors and Antiretrovirals: The Biopolitics of HIV/AIDS in Post-Apartheid South Africa” by Claire Laurier DeCoteau



In her most recent book, Dr. Laurier Decoteau eloquently traces the politics of HIV and AIDS from 1994 through 2010 in Post-Apartheid South Africa. She describes important shifts in health policy and nestles them in real-life stories of people living with HIV and dying from AIDS. Her ethnographic data, collected over ten years, highlights several key issues including the changing relationship between indigenous and biomedical health care and the complex and often contradictory way that the South African government failed to balance a neoliberal existence (i.e., political movement beginning in the 1960s that blends traditional liberal concerns for social justice with an emphasis on economic growth.) with the health needs of its citizens. A major theme throughout the book is that AIDS continues to be terrain upon which many post-colonial paradoxes are played out in South Africa.

South Africa is heralded for adopting one of the most progressive constitutions in the world. It is one of the wealthiest countries on the African continent. And yet, South Africa still maintains the ….distinction of having the highest rates of HIV prevalence in the world, and ranks among the most unequal countries in the world in ….wealth and income distribution (Page 7)


The book has five chapters, each with its own major theme. Chapter one describes the ethnographic setting for the book and introduces the reader to the challenges of living in townships and squatter camps and dealing with the effects that HIV and AIDS can have on a person, family and community.  We are introduced to the author’s method of presenting her arguments and raising important issues though the use of interviewee quotes.  One quote captures the essence of this chapter. “Many people think that HIV might kill them in ten years, but poverty or violence will kill them first, so why worry about it?” (Page 49)

Chapter two describes President Thabo Mbeki’s reign as President and his “AIDS Denialism”. We learn how this denialism affects people living with and affected by HIV and AIDS. President Mbeki’s main premise was that that biomedical science was couched in an imperialist paradigm and ignored the cultural and racial identity of Africans. The chapter outlines how his infusion of AIDS denialism promoted indigenous healing as an alternative to biomedical approaches, going as far as delaying the rollout of antiretroviral therapy and life-saving medication to thousands of people.  The author makes the case that his neoliberal economic policies required the state to cut social services, in essence, undermining ARV rollout. We also are shown ethnographic evidence that national discourses of self-responsibility became particularly prevalent during his tenure as well as a national environment that supported the individualization of blame for the spread of HIV. Ancestors and Antiretrovirals

Chapter three describes the efforts of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), a community-based advocacy group that took on the international pharmaceutical industry and ultimately brought free ARVs to South Africa. It also reinforces how structural obstacles often impede impoverished South Africans to participate in biomedical technologies.  The term “Biomedical Citizenship” is introduced and explained as we see examples of people who only have citizen rights if they have disciplined behavior to adhere to ARV medication.

Chapter four, titled “The Politicization of Sexuality” describes President Jacob Zuma’s reign and his ability to speak to poor South Africans.  Because he has been described as symbolizing many traditional aspects of an African Man, this identity is used to highlight several key issues.  The author argues that during this time period, deindustrialization and AIDS challenged idealized and traditional notions of masculinity and increased informalized sex.  This chapter illustrates how shifts in the political economy impacted gender ideologies and sexual practices in post-apartheid South Africa.

Chapter five analyzes the relationship between indigenous and biomedical healing in South Africa. We are provided an in depth analysis of indigenous forms of healing and how they have waxed and waned during the national discourse of AIDS over time.  We learn that “indigenous healing helps situate illnesses and recognizes them as composites of cultural, social, environmental, historical, economic and biological factors.” (Page 225) The book closes with a short critique by the author of “the ways in which biomedical solutions have failed to address some of the underlying, fundamental causes of the epidemic” (Page 23).  She argues that her research shows how an individualized, commodified approach to treating people, without regard for safety, sanitation and sustainability, might do more harm than good.


Having lived in South Africa between 2003 until 2007, this book was a trip down memory lane.  Many of the author’s arguments and many of the ethnographic anecdotes spoke to me personally.  At times I felt like a professor reviewing a doctoral dissertation and wanted to pull out the dictionary for words that I had never seen.  At other times, I found myself nodding in agreement of the points she made.  I regularly appreciated how she challenged core assumptions of Western social science. For example, she regularly offers evidence that the international epidemiological approach and a focus on individualized biomedical interventions decontextualize behavior and ignore the structural factors that create conditions of vulnerability to disease.

The book nicely captures the nuances of government policy choices and how these policy choices affect people’s lives.  I lived in South Africa during AIDS denialism; a period where drugs were available yet hindered from entering the country.  I fostered an HIV positive infant and worked through the systemic obstacles to get her on treatment.  It was a horrible and life-changing event.  I witnessed TAC marching at the international AIDS conference in 2000 advocating for ARVs on the continent.  I appreciated the author’s detailed account of TAC and although controversial, a critical organization in the fight to get services to people.  I saw an entire industry develop around the production of death and was maddened that people were denied ARVs.  I lived through the government fiascos that labeled the President and Minister of Health as unreasonable.  I remember the reshuffling of the Department of Health in 2006 after then Minister of Health Manta Tshabalala-Msimang displayed beetroot and lemon as a replacement for ARVs at the International HIV/AIDS Conference in Toronto.

Importantly, this book serves as a reminder that ethnographic methods are an essential tool for exploring the ways in which health and disease are experienced and understood by those most affected.  My friends and colleagues shared their stories of the stigma and shame that surrounds this disease.  In my opinion, donors and national governments have not paid enough attention to the power of stigma and discrimination. “With all of the obvious attention paid to the genocidal level of deaths the epidemic has produced, the words of HIV and AIDS are never mentioned at funerals. The bodies are piling up, but their significance is cloaked in silence.” (Page 76).  I appreciated that the author used interviewee quotes to bring important issues to the surface; no amount of epidemiologic data can capture the nuanced social and cultural issues that have an impact on HIV and AIDS.

I found myself wondering if I would appreciate the book as much as I did had I not lived the experience of working in the AIDS field in South Africa at the time.  I do, however, think that this book is artfully presented and an unusual read for those working in the public health arena.  It consistently connects the macro and micro levels and highlights the often complex and contradictory relationships between global processes, national policies and local practices. The emphasis on the broader system, relevant to health and disease, is critical when dealing with complex health issues such as HIV and AIDS.  Professionals and decision makers working on HIV and AIDS issues could learn lessons from disciplines such as sociology and anthropology, and would greatly benefit from a broader perspective than the strictly biomedical view of the world.


Follow @USAIDGH on Twitter through World AIDS Day, observed on December 2, for key facts, resources, and photos from our programs and partners and join the conversation using the hashtag #WAD2013.


Birth in the Age of AIDS: Women, Reproduction and HIV/AIDS in India

USAID is observing World AIDS Day this year by celebrating ten years of our HIV and AIDS work under PEPFAR.

Book Review: “Birth in the Age of AIDS: Women, Reproduction and HIV/AIDS in India” by Cecilia Van Hollen


Birth in the Age of AIDS takes the reader on a very personal journey of the experiences  HIV- positive women in Southern India have during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum.  Through the lens of an anthropologist, the author explores the socio-cultural dynamics of HIV and AIDS, providing emic (an insider’s) insights into such issues as stigma and discrimination, informed consent for HIV testing, confidentiality, partner disclosure, access to HIV and AIDS services, and reproductive decision-making.  Ethnographic methods are used to elicit underlying factors that come into play when HIV-positive women are faced with life altering decisions regarding pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. These factors include blame and shame, gender, authority, religion, poverty, class and caste, sexual norms, kinship and marriage, property inheritance, widowhood and social structure.  The book depicts the interconnectedness between cultural norms and beliefs, HIV status, and motherhood and how they play out in many aspects of a HIV-positive woman’s life. Case after case, Van Hollen documents the consequences of being HIV-positive and the effects of being involved in social networks for people living with HIV.  Birth in the Age of AIDS


Van Hollen in her book, Birth in the Age of AIDS vividly brings out the stark realities that women living with HIV face during their reproductive years. During the early years of the epidemic, women had little access to information and services related to HIV and AIDS. They often learned of their status upon the death of their husbands and faced pregnancy as a HIV-positive widow, which in Indian society, results in double stigma and blame from her in-laws.  These women had to maneuver through complex social environments, carefully considering the impact of every decision on their family, children, and unborn fetus and on their ability to provide for their children.  Each decision was more difficult than the next – whether to get tested, whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy, whether to disclose their status, whose advice to trust, whether to take medicine during the pregnancy, where to deliver the baby to avoid discrimination, and whether to breastfeed. The thoughtfulness and selflessness portrayed by the women who shared their stories is inspiring, and rather than feeling pity (which they despise), the reader feels absolute admiration for their tenacity. Though deeply impoverished, the author demonstrates how women used every resource available to them to survive so that they can be good mothers, including religious conversion and remarriage.  This book brings to life the positive empowering results of being engaged in a network of people living with HIV and AIDS, taking women from the shadows of shame to the brightness of dignity.  Though the book focuses on case studies from a decade back, the stories of stigma, discrimination, avoidance, and rejection are timeless. Today, many HIV-positive women – as well as men, still face the same types of challenges in their families, within the health care system and in broader society as they traverse the worlds of HIV and maternity care.

Birth in the Age of AIDS provides a new perspective on the history of the international and domestic response to the AIDS epidemic in India from its inception in Tamil Nadu.  By meticulously dissecting each case from a variety of perspectives, Van Hollen uncovers layer after layer the patterns that create stigma, exacerbate gender inequalities, undermine women’s decision-making about their own health and treatment, and lead to family discord.  The book unfolds for policy-makers, program managers and service providers a profound understand of the complexities that underlie seemingly irrational decisions about what experts know as global best practices and evidence-based interventions.  It is not just a matter of taking a pill; we wish it were that simple.

Discussion Questions:

  1. The book calls into question which is a better practice for the HIV-positive woman – HIV testing using informed consent or the “opt out” approach as a routine part of prenatal care. On the one hand, using an informed consent approach offers the opportunity to provide detailed information on HIV prevention, care and treatment. On the other hand, it takes time and resources of health staff.  The U.S. has shifted to the “opt out” approach, which puts the decision about testing in the hands of the medical profession. Should developing countries follow our lead?

  2. Some of the health care providers in the stories demonstrate that their medical decisions were at times guided by misinformation, personal opinion, and discrimination.   Yet, taking health workers away from their health facilities for training and refresher training is both expensive and disruptive of services. What are other ways we can ensure health personnel are up to date on the latest medical information and practice and learn how to treat clients with respect?

  3. Couple counseling and testing during pregnancy is one approach thought to reduce the blame often put on the woman.  What were the experiences of the women who experienced couple counseling and testing? How can we improve the way couple counseling and testing is implemented in societies like those in South India where women are often blamed?

Follow @USAIDGH on Twitter through World AIDS Day, observed on December 2, for key facts, resources, and photos from our programs and partners and join the conversation using the hashtag #WAD2013.

New Evidence on Child Marriage Prevention in Ethiopia

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. During this time IMPACT will highlight USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence.

Defined as a formal marriage or informal union before the age of 18 years, child marriage is a practice that increases a girl’s risk of school dropout, maternal mortality, short birth intervals, vulnerability to gender-based violence, and poor mental health, among other adverse outcomes. Estimates suggest that 1 in 3 girls in the developing world are married before the age of 18. In areas such as the Amhara Region of Ethiopia, the prevalence of child marriage (CM) is among the highest in the world, with 2009 estimates showing that 50% of girls were married before the age of 18.

To help address the needs of 50 million adolescents who are already married, USAID invested in programs through PEPFAR to reach more than 220,000 married adolescent girls in Amhara, Ethiopia with access to family planning, STI services, HIV services, financial literacy, and menstruation management.

To help combat child marriage before it happens, USAID invests in research to prevent CM in “hot spot” areas with high CM prevalence. In Amhara, Ethiopia, as well as hot spot regions of Tanzania and Burkina Faso, USAID is supporting an innovative five-arm study on the effectiveness and cost of community education, economic incentives, and educational support on delaying marriage among adolescent girls, compared to control communities not receiving interventions.

Join the conversation with @USAID on Twitter using #16days.

Join the conversation with @USAID on Twitter using #16days.

USAID promotes dissemination and use of new evidence on effective strategies for child marriage prevention. A 2013 study (PDF) published by Anastasia Gage, supported under the USAID-funded MEASURE Evaluation project, sheds new light on how exposure to behavior change communication (BCC) affects knowledge and attitudes on CM among parents and guardians in Amhara Region. Although parents and guardians often decide when and who a girl marries, little data exists on effective strategies to change CM attitudes and knowledge among these gatekeepers.

Results from Gage’s study show that almost all parents were exposed to CM prevention messages from 1-2 communication channels.  Social influence was important to parents. Parents who believed their communities disapproved of CM were more likely to believe that marriage before age 18 was too early and that their daughters had the right to choose their own partner. By addressing parental attitudes and perceptions, programs can change social norms around child marriage. Future BCC campaigns on CM prevention should address the role of social influence on parental behaviors and attitudes and reinforce the health, economic, and educational benefits of delayed marriage. Evaluations of BCC programs should include a comparison group, monitor interventions for coverage, and measure changes in behaviors and practices.

USAID continues to support data collection on CM. Since 1984, the Agency has funded more than 260 Demographic and Health (DHS) surveys, which allow for identification of areas with the highest prevalence of CM. USAID supports rigorous evaluations of conditional cash transfer programs to delay CM among girls in India and Bangladesh, countries that account for the largest number of child brides in the world.

Learn more about USAID’s policies to address CM in Ending Child Marriage and Meeting the Needs of Married Children: The USAID Vision for Action. This vision is part of a suite of interlinked gender policies including the U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to GBV Globally, the Gender Equality and Female Empowerment Policy, National Action Plan on Children in Adversity, Youth in Development Policy and National Action Plan on Women, Peace & Security.

The Power of a Grandmother’s Love

USAID is observing World AIDS Day this year by celebrating ten years of our HIV and AIDS work under PEPFAR.

As we approach World AIDS Day 2013, children affected by and living with HIV/AIDS must remain central to the global response.  As the largest funder of programs that mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS in the lives of children worldwide, PEPFAR would like to celebrate the courage and compassion of all the caregivers, the grandmothers, the mothers and fathers, the aunts and uncles and older siblings, who have stepped forward to care for children affected by the epidemic.

GoGo means Grandmother in most South African languages. Photo credit: Tash McCarroll/USAID

“GoGo” means Grandmother in most South African languages. Photo credit: Tash McCarroll/USAID

GoGo is an old woman with a young girl’s bright smile. She lives in a small, tin-roofed, two room house in Soweto, with eight of her grandchildren. When her first daughter died of HIV, she took in her three young children, the oldest of whom was named Precious. At the time, Precious was 14. She was a clever girl who always did well in school and loved learning. When her mother became sick, Precious was forced to drop out of school to take care of her younger siblings and mother. And when her mother died, Precious moved in with her GoGo, who had no income and no means to support Precious to continue her education. Just as Precious began to lose hope, Grace walked into their lives. Grace is a Child and Youth Care Worker (CYCW) with the PEPFAR- supported Isibindi project.

CYCWs are para-social workers that support orphaned and vulnerable children whose lives have been turned upside down by HIV/AIDS. Grace helped Precious return to school and supported all of GoGo’s grandchildren to be tested for HIV. When GoGo’s younger daughter died and she took in her three children as well, Grace helped ensure they were also tested as well. And when tests indicated that none of the children were HIV-positive, GoGo and Grace were relieved, but they knew that they would have to continue to protect themselves and support these children in order to maintain healthy lives. Thanks to help from Grace, GoGo was able to complete an application and gain access to a government grant to cover basic expenses.

Grace still supports the family and visits with them twice a week. She makes sure the children are attending school and doing well psychologically, and helps GoGo to meet their other needs. GoGo still has eight children in her care, but she does not seem burdened or discouraged. She looks to the future with hope. When complimented on the care that she provides to her grandchildren, GoGo responds, “Of course I do this work. They are my children. No one can hold them like I can.”

Learn more about USAID’s role as a leading implementer of PEPFAR programs for orphans and vulnerable children.

This story is part of an ongoing series of blogs from the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator in recognition of the 10th anniversary of PEPFAR. Previous blogs in the series can be found on the PEPFAR blog site. 

Follow @USAIDGH on Twitter through World AIDS Day, observed on December 2, for key facts, resources, and photos from our programs and partners and join the conversation using the hashtag #WAD2013.

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