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Keeping it Local: One Youth Leader Who Is Fighting Corruption in Ukraine

Taras Sluchyk speaks at public rally in his hometown of Ivano-Frankivsk, urging university students to mobilize. / Courtesy of IRI

Taras Sluchyk speaks at public rally in his hometown of Ivano-Frankivsk, urging university students to mobilize. / Courtesy of IRI

Since his first year as a political science college student in 2008, Taras Sluchyk has been active in advocacy movements for good governance in Ukraine.

A couple of years after Taras started university, Viktor Yanukovych came to power, accelerating  a period of democratic rollback in Ukraine. The 2010 local elections and the parliamentary elections in 2012, which followed, were riddled with irregularities.

Public hearings provide an opportunity for citizens to directly liaise with their governments and hear from their local authorities on their activities. Here, citizens attend a public hearing in Crimea in 2011. / IRI

Public hearings provide an opportunity for citizens to directly liaise with their governments and hear from their local authorities on their activities. Here, citizens attend a public hearing in Crimea in 2011. / IRI

Taras passionately believed his Ukraine needed to make critical changes if democracy was to flourish. During his time at university, he looked for ways to put his theories into practice, but he lacked direction and focus. Through participation in several USAID-supported seminars on citizen engagement with local governments, implemented by the International Republican Institute (IRI), he learned that to affect change, one must start small, ensuring that policies at the local level are reflective of public rather than private interest.

Through the years, Taras has taken part in movements to defend the rights of young people, conducted seminars on civic activism and leadership for youth in district centers, and headed a Ukrainian youth civic organization, Democratic Alliance.

Fighting Corruption in Ukraine’s Utility Companies

In Ukraine, public service delivery in communities is a nexus point for citizens and local government. Urban regional centers create utility companies to deliver services, and their effectiveness in doing so is reflective of the local system of governance. These companies are often vulnerable to corruption and non-transparency, due to scant requirements for publicizing their activities.

Expert trainers, including Taras Sluchyk, gather with participants of IRI’s USAID-supported Youth Political Leadership Academy in Dnipro, Ukraine, following a training. / IRI

Expert trainers, including Taras Sluchyk, gather with participants of IRI’s USAID-supported Youth Political Leadership Academy in Dnipro, Ukraine, following a training. / IRI

Today, there are more than 800 utility companies in Ukraine.

In his hometown of Ivano-Frankivsk in western Ukraine, Taras began to take the first steps to curb rampant corrupt practices by successfully lobbying a draft resolution to the city council that outlined what information utility companies should disclose to the general public.

Ukrainian youth begin to plan a local advocacy project for their community following a USAID-supported training on political leadership led by Taras Sluchyk. / IRI

Ukrainian youth begin to plan a local advocacy project for their community following a USAID-supported training on political leadership led by Taras Sluchyk. / IRI

Since the resolution’s adoption, public disclosure by utility companies in his region has dramatically increased. Such measures reduce vulnerability to corruption by exposing practices to public scrutiny.

Expanding His Scope

Since 2013, Taras has visited dozens of cities across Ukraine, sharing methods for increasing transparency and accountability within local government.

Taras Sluchyk has supported anti-corruption efforts at the local level in Ukraine for many years, playing a pivotal role in USAID programs. / Courtesy of IRI

Taras Sluchyk has supported anti-corruption efforts at the local level in Ukraine for many years, playing a pivotal role in USAID programs. / Courtesy of IRI

“It is only the changes in many cities [that provide] a practical mechanism for implementation of standards from the bottom for the whole country,” Taras said.

His efforts have reached civil society and community activists, city council members, local government officials, and mayors’ offices. Through his work increasing accountability and transparency in Ukraine, supported by USAID, Taras has used Ivano-Frankivsk as a model for inspiring other communities to pursue anti-corruption initiatives in their local governments.

Taras Sluchyk is a renowned local governance expert in Ukraine. / Courtesy of IRI

Taras Sluchyk is a renowned local governance expert in Ukraine. / Courtesy of IRI

Taras has become a passionate and engaged leader at the national level, gathering citizens and political and civic activists across Ukraine to join efforts against corruption. He also continues to draft legislation to promote the highest standards of good governance and transparency for local governments around the country, several of which have been adopted by city councils across Ukraine, including most recently in the western city of Ternopil.

Taras Sluchyk has organized university students from across the country to rally. / Courtesy of IRI

Taras Sluchyk has organized university students from across the country to rally. / Courtesy of IRI

USAID continues to build on Taras’ progress in Ukraine, bringing communities together to reduce opportunities and incentives for corruption and create a common vision of a democratic future.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Natalya Yakymchuk, International Republican Institute

Overcoming the Stigma of Gender-Based Violence

This 56-year-old man is a farmer, husband and father of 10. Three years ago, his 11-year-old daughter was raped; the years following have been difficult. What he wants now is simply for his daughter to go on and lead a successful, normal life: “I want my daughter to go to school.” / Morgana Wingard, USAID

This 56-year-old man is a farmer, husband and father of 10. Three years ago, his 11-year-old daughter was raped; the years following have been difficult. What he wants now is simply for his daughter to go on and lead a successful, normal life: “I want my daughter to go to school.” / Morgana Wingard, USAID

On a rainy night three years ago, a family was sleeping in their home in Birktobolo Village in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Their peace was shattered when a man broke into the home and raped one of the family’s children, an 11-year-old girl.  While recovering from the physical and mental trauma of that assault, this girl was subjected to taunts from her schoolmates and isolation by her community.

Incidents like these are far too common. Survivors of gender-based violence frequently face such unfair reprisals and stigma, and many cases are unreported because they are thought to bring shame to a survivor’s family.  Sadly, those who are too afraid or ashamed to seek help do not receive the quality, confidential medical care they need for long-term recovery.  

Gender-based violence is violence that is directed at an individual based on biological sex, gender identity, or perceived adherence to socially defined norms of masculinity and femininity.  It is a global pandemic inflicted upon women, men, individuals of different genders, and children. Regardless of the target, gender-based violence is rooted in structural gender inequalities and is characterized by the use and abuse of physical, emotional, or financial power and control.

In 2013, USAID helped to fund the Demographic and Health Survey in the DRC, a nationwide survey that sampled 18,000 households from all provinces. The survey found that more than one in four women in the DRC experienced sexual violence, and more than half suffered physical or sexual violence.

To address the needs of these women and others who have experienced gender violence, USAID provides a holistic set of essential services to more than 100,000 survivors in the DRC, including access to medical care, psychosocial support, economic reintegration, vocational and literacy training, and support for legal reform.

"Gender-based violence is not a norm. It is a crime.” said Odner Lwangu, a health administrator at the U.S.-funded Taita Sub-County Hospital in Kenya. “When the society covers up for perpetrators, it encourages the cycle to continue of laying the blame on the victim. At our Gender Violence Recovery Center, patients have a safer, private place where they can access medical and counselling services.” / Irene Angwenyi, USAID Kenya

“Gender-based violence is not a norm. It is a crime.” said Odner Lwangu, a health administrator at the U.S.-funded Taita Sub-County Hospital in Kenya. “When the society covers up for perpetrators, it encourages the cycle to continue of laying the blame on the victim. At our Gender Violence Recovery Center, patients have a safer, private place where they can access medical and counselling services.” / Irene Angwenyi, USAID Kenya

Thankfully, these kinds of positive interventions contributed to a promising outcome for the 11-year-old girl I described earlier:,A USAID-supported psychosocial counselor named Pheomena Bisengo helped to resolve the harassment that was happening to the girl at school, provided emotional support, and created a recovery plan for her.

In the DRC and around the world, USAID is supporting the work of people like Pheomena who are fighting to combat the stigma that too often accompanies acts of gender violence.

In Colombia, Tania Duarte Díaz works with Caribe Afirmativo, a group that advocates for equal rights for the LGBTI community. The USAID-funded group was formed in 2007 after the hate-motivated murder of professor and advocate Rolando Pérez. From 2007 to 2014, Caribe Afirmativo recorded 119 murders of LGBTI individuals on the Caribbean coast, and 70 percent of those murdered were transgender women. Shockingly, of these 119 murders, only 25 cases have been brought to trial—and there have been only five convictions.

Tania is working to change how the legal system responds to survivors of gender-based violence, and helps Caribe Affirmativo train Cartagena’s police force to respect legal protections.

Nusrat Bibi, an acid burn survivor, takes photographs during a field trip for a photography workshop. / Diego Sanchez, USAID

Nusrat Bibi, an acid burn survivor, takes photographs during a field trip for a photography workshop. / Diego Sanchez, USAID

Efforts to destigmatize gender-based violence also work to empower survivors. For instance, acid violence is a particularly outrageous form of torture that involves throwing corrosive acid at the faces of victims. This not only disfigures the victims’ faces, stealing their identity and eroding their self-image, but also has a catastrophic effect on their lives, as they wind up ostracized and socially isolated. Acid violence is one of the worst forms of domestic violence; it is most often directed against women, but children and men may also be victims.

In Pakistan, Nusrat Bibi received photography training from the Acid Survivors Foundation. As part of a rehabilitation process that includes developing new skills, the foundation taught nine acid attack survivors, including Nusrat, ways to express themselves through their photography. The work of these survivors was featured in three different exhibitions in Islamabad.

That training received a grant from the USAID-funded Gender Equity Program with the Aurat Foundation. The Gender Equity Program, a five-year, $40 million program that issues small grants to Pakistani governmental and non-governmental organizations, actively supports women’s economic, political, and social development and works to change societal attitudes toward women.

Gender-based violence is a human rights violation, a public health challenge, and a barrier to civic, social, political and economic participation. It threatens the economic stability of individuals, households, and nations; reduces productivity; increases psychological and physical trauma; lowers income; creates stigma; and limits access to education.

During this year’s 16 Days of Activism against Gender-based Violence campaign, I ask that we all be be proactive in ensuring that response and prevention strategies are integrated into into our work. I ask that we stay vigilant against those who want to hurt people for being different—because of their sex or gender or because they seek to change discriminatory social norms. Finally, I ask that we hold perpetrators of gender-based violence morally, socially, and, most importantly, legally accountable.

Most of all, I join you in aiming for a world where stigma against survivors no longer exists—and where, ultimately, gender-based violence itself is eradicated, once and for all.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Charles North is the Senior Deputy Assistant Administrator of USAID’s Bureau for Economic Growth, Education and Environment, which provides Agency-wide technical leadership, research and field support in twelve technical sectors, including gender equality and women’s empowerment.

“Localize It”: A Voice from the Field

im Zumwalt, U.S. Ambassador to Senegal, stands with Ibrahima Sall, the founder of Coumba Nor Thiam, a medium-sized rice milling firm established in the northern part of Senegal. USAID/Senegal is working with the firm and other enterprises to develop a system to improve smallholder rice farmers’ ability to access urban markets. / USAID/Senegal

James Zumwalt, U.S. Ambassador to Senegal, stands with Ibrahima Sall, the founder of Coumba Nor Thiam, a medium-sized rice milling firm established in the northern part of Senegal. USAID/Senegal is working with the firm and other enterprises to develop a system to improve smallholder rice farmers’ ability to access urban markets. / USAID/Senegal

“Localize it” is a phrase that increasingly resonates in the world of development. It echoes the growing voice from the field calling for greater local involvement, locally based solutions, and empowerment of local communities.

This is all the more true in the context of building partnerships with the private sector to address development objectives.

As a Foreign Service National, I am proud to be a Senegalese native working for USAID to create partnerships with the private sector that enhance the Senegal mission’s development objectives.

USAID/Senegal is partnering with local private sector actors such as Coumba Nor Thiam, a medium-sized rice milling firm in northern Senegal, to improve smallholder rice farmers’ ability to access urban markets. / USAID/Senegal

USAID/Senegal is partnering with local private sector actors such as Coumba Nor Thiam, a medium-sized rice milling firm in northern Senegal, to improve smallholder rice farmers’ ability to access urban markets. / USAID/Senegal

To me, “localize it” is more than just a phrase—it is the foundation of my career. I have always believed that development is first and foremost a community’s commitment to uplift itself from the vulnerabilities that are caused by poverty, diseases, inadequate infrastructure or poor governance. And that stems from the people and systems within those communities.

The power of “localize it” is demonstrated by Ibrahima Sall, the founder of Coumba Nor Thiam, a medium-sized rice milling firm established in northern Senegal. The USAID mission in Senegal is working with the firm and other enterprises to develop a system to improve smallholder rice farmers’ ability to access urban markets.

USAID is partnering with Senegalese firms throughout the rice value chain to scale up rice production through improvements in processing capacities, storage facilities and modernized harvesting equipment. / USAID/Senegal.

USAID is partnering with Senegalese firms throughout the rice value chain to scale up rice production through improvements in processing capacities, storage facilities and modernized harvesting equipment. / USAID/Senegal.

When we spoke, I could feel Ibrahima’s passion and engagement for advancing communities that he’s been part of for the past 50 years. Ibrahima knows how to build loyalty among smallholder farmers so they can be motivated to supply higher-quality rice for his milling company. He understands the cultural nuances that allow him to create a trusting environment, necessary to operate in challenging settings where formal mechanisms may not always be enough. Ibrahima has a stake in the future of his community; he is a local agent for sustainable impact.

In the field, you will find many success stories of engaged local private sector actors, like Ibrahima, growing their enterprises with and within their communities. Whether it is creating the right storage conditions for cereal production, providing maternal health service delivery, developing solar-based solutions to improve access to electricity, or using IT services to transform a village perspective on the world, all of them strive to open a world of new opportunities.

Local solutions are implemented through local stakeholders to address local problems and create stronger local ecosystems. That is the path to sustainability.

At USAID, we partner to end extreme poverty by helping those who are working to improve their lives, their communities and their nations. Together, we work to raise the quality of life of people around the world, whether through improving food security or increasing access to quality health care. Ibrahima and his counterparts, through market-driven approaches, are helping us achieve our goals.

By partnering with local companies in Senegal’s rice value chain, USAID is working to increase food security and decrease poverty. / USAID/Senegal.

By partnering with local companies in Senegal’s rice value chain, USAID is working to increase food security and decrease poverty. / USAID/Senegal.

There are great opportunities to partner with local agents of sustainable impact and to design pathways and mechanisms to facilitate the building of those partnerships. This can be done through our implementing partners, but also directly, as local systems and solutions should be used to scale up impact.

Take, for example, the Senegalese rice sector. USAID is partnering with an alliance of rice millers, smallholder farmers federations, and the Senegalese government to scale up rice production and improve access to markets. This partnership aims to significantly reduce imports and create sustainable economic growth opportunities within Senegal.

Foreign Service Nationals have a key role to play in advancing this agenda of local solutions across all sectors and areas of interventions with government, private sector organizations, universities and NGOs. USAID Administrator Gayle Smith said Foreign Service Nationals “bring a tremendous amount of expertise to USAID’s work – not just in the history, culture and politics of the countries where they serve, but in every sector where we work.”

Our sector expertise and understanding of the local context, as well as our established network of relationships in-country, are an asset to USAID. But we are also important to our respective countries. As we work with and for USAID to support the efforts of the government and other local stakeholders, we also become agents of sustainability, driving that path towards more self-reliance.

The “localize it” hymn has certainly been sung before, no doubt about it, but I want to reinforce it. Indeed, in the realms of private sector partnerships, we often look, and rightly so, to partner with the big multinationals that have business interests which overlap with our development goals. And in that endeavor, we could be tempted to overlook the many local people and organizations that may have lesser means and recognition, but hold the seeds to flower a true development purpose. Those are, like Ibrahima, at the core of the notion of partnering for sustainable impact in development.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Souley Wade is a Public Private Partnerships and Global Development Alliances Specialist at USAID’s Senegal mission.

When Violence Is Not the Exception

 Anju, before heading off to a job interview. /Amy Fowler, USAID

Anju, before heading off to a job interview. /Amy Fowler, USAID

It had been only six months into the marriage before Anju’s* dream of a “happily ever after” was shattered to pieces. Hailing from Haryana, a state known across India for its shockingly high rates of female feticide, Anju dared to believe that her husband would love and keep her well.

“In the beginning, he was very nice to me,” she says. “But it all changed when my father died.”

When her husband’s family realized that Anju may have received an inheritance, they began to demand more dowry. But Anju’s mother, try as she might, was never able to fulfill their requests. With a young son to take care of and already living in an unhappy household, Anju found her daily life worsening when her brother-in-law tried to force himself on her.

Anju turned to her husband for support and was shocked when, instead, he told her to accept the advances of his brother. It was then Anju learned her husband’s family traditionally shared women. When she refused to take part, they took away her phone, beat her, raped her, and threatened to force her into prostitution.

Worried for what her son would learn and how he would grow up, she tried to run away but was caught. As punishment, she was locked in a room, separated from her son, and starved. Her sister contacted the police, who helped rescue Anju and her son from her husband’s family.

Sadly, this sort of violence against women is not the exception. In India, rape is the fastest growing crime. According to the country’s National Crime Records Bureau, every 29 minutes, a woman is raped; and every nine minutes, a case of cruelty at the hands of a husband or relative occurs. Gender-based violence (GBV) is widespread. It threatens the health, freedom and security of victims and yet remains largely hidden by a culture of silence.

USAID, however, is working to change these statistics. Take Anju, who, through an aunt, heard of a USAID-supported crisis management center where she received psychosocial and legal counseling. With a newfound confidence, she is pursuing legal action and has a court case against her husband. In her words: “The day I first came here, I was so afraid. Now I know what I have to do. I am with my child. I am independent.”

This crisis management center, which to date has dealt with 1,905 cases, is supported under USAID’s Wajood project. Wajood works to increase access to GBV services such as counseling, trainings and linkages, and to transform negative gender norms within communities.

USAID’s Wajood project works to increase access to gender-based violence services such as counseling, trainings and linkages, and to transform negative gender norms within communities. /Amy Fowler, USAID

USAID’s Wajood project works to increase access to gender-based violence services such as counseling, trainings and linkages, and to transform negative gender norms within communities. /Amy Fowler, USAID

These efforts reflect USAID’s global commitment to prevent and respond to gender-based violence and promote women’s empowerment and gender equality. We know that sustainable and inclusive development cannot be achieved without ending gender violence.

Today, Anju has joined the many survivors who have been helped by this center and others like it. As she raises her son to respect women, she is now confident that she can “take action and live without a man.”

Her strength astounds me. When I first met Anju, she spoke hardly a word and would not look me in the eyes. Weeks later, and knowing that her story could help other women, she confidently told me and others her experience before proudly heading off to a job interview.

Her story is just one of many in the struggle against GBV, but it embodies the extraordinary courage and resilience of survivors. During these 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence from Nov. 25 through Dec. 10, let us think of Anju and recognize the importance of ending GBV, not just so women like her can lead better lives, but also so the rights of everyone, everywhere, are forever protected and ensured.

*Name changed to protect identity.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Katherine Kemp recently worked as a summer hire in USAID’s Health Office in India.

RELATED LINKS

Getting from A to B Gets Easier in Tanzania with New Mapping Open Data

To help the Tanzanian Government optimize its health supply chain transport system, the USAID | DELIVER PROJECT mapped the country. / Photo Courtesy of John Snow, Inc

To help the Tanzanian Government optimize its health supply chain transport system, the USAID | DELIVER PROJECT mapped the country. / Photo Courtesy of John Snow, Inc

Pretend, for a moment, that you’re a truck driver in a developing country and tasked with making a delivery to an unfamiliar location. It’s important that you get there on time, because you’re delivering medical supplies to a community that really needs them and any delay on your part could impact treatment of patients. How would you reach your destination?

If you immediately thought you’d use your smartphone or other satellite global positioning system (GPS) device to find your way, that’s because these tools have become ubiquitous in developed countries. While mobile phone usage has exploded in recent years in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world, accurate digital maps and time estimates for travel are not always available. In many places, the data it takes to build a good road map is missing, and you may find your GPS directing you onto a rural “road” that is little more than a dirt path.

TZ Treacherous crossing

Maps Matter for Health

When it comes to medical supplies, these transit challenges can add up to serious gaps in health care for rural people. That’s why a USAID project in Tanzania took on the challenge of mapping more than 30,000 kilometers of road connecting more than 5,600 health facilities across the country.

The USAID | DELIVER PROJECT, which partners with government health ministries and other organizations to improve health in developing countries by increasing access to health supplies, was asked by the Government of Tanzania in 2014 to help improve how it delivered health care supplies. Almost half the roads in Tanzania were not online, making medical supply delivery unpredictable and unreliable.

To improve the system, we partnered with Tanzania’s Medical Stores Department (MSD) to analyze delivery routes and available transport resources. Although MSD had a comprehensive list of facilities across the country, about 30 percent did not have a validated geocode, making them difficult to find unless you asked a local how to get there!

While a digital map of Tanzania’s road network existed, it was incomplete. Truck drivers trying to get supplies from MSD to faraway clinics did not know if the route they chose was reliable or how much time a route would take to navigate.

A Mapping Solution that Yielded Dividends

Fortunately, if you install a tracking device on trucks headed out for delivery, you can amass a large amount of GPS data quickly. And that’s just what we did. Using GPS data from devices recently installed on MSD trucks, our team was able to mark the unmapped secondary road network showing what routes were navigable across the entire country. We also classified all roads in terms of travel speeds. This data was then used to analyze the distribution of health supplies and determine how best to plan and route each shipment.

Given the huge variations in speeds between the wet and dry seasons, particularly on dirt roads, prior to the online mapping, drivers determined their delivery routes based on guesswork and a general perception of what routes would be fastest. Photo courtesy of the Tanzania Medical Stores Department

Given the huge variations in speeds between the wet and dry seasons, particularly on dirt roads, prior to the online mapping, drivers determined their delivery routes based on guesswork and a general perception of what routes would be fastest.
Photo courtesy of the Tanzania Medical Stores Department

And we didn’t stop there. When MSD and Tanzania’s Ministry of Health and Social Welfare saw the program in action, they immediately recognized its value beyond the health logistics system and asked that we expand its scope across the country. With MSD, we developed a plan to release the roads data and make it available for public use without compromising program information. We joined forces with Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team, a global community of mappers, and Ramani Huria, a community mapping group in Dar es Salaam, to upload the Tanzania data area-by-area, making it accessible to everyone around the globe.

Now, this digital map can be used not just by those delivering medical supplies, but also by food producers transporting crops to market, tour operators showcasing Tanzania’s spectacular wildlife, and others engaged in commerce who are driving Tanzania’s economic growth and development. With a comprehensive digital road map at their disposal, these businesses can better plan and operate. We think that’s a win for mappers, businesses, consumers and anyone else getting from point A to point B.

Before and After: Tanzania’s Road Network

Before and After: Tanzania’s Road Network

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Andrew Inglis leads the effort to use geographic information systems (GIS) in Tanzania to improve supply chain design and effectiveness at John Snow Inc. for the USAID | DELIVER PROJECT. The DELIVER PROJECT improves health outcomes in developing countries by increasing the availability of health supplies.

Marasi Mwencha is a supply chain program manager with JSI in Tanzania, overseeing engagement on the Global Health Supply Chain Technical Assistance (GHSC-TA) and inSupply projects in Tanzania. He is a technology and data enthusiast who enjoys leveraging innovative practices, including modelling to optimize and strengthen health systems.

Executive Order Prioritizes Our Shared Global Health Security

A health care worker checks on patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Unit in the Island Clinic, Monrovia, Liberia, Sept. 22, 2014. /Morgana Wingard

A health care worker checks on patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Unit in the Island Clinic, Monrovia, Liberia, Sept. 22, 2014. /Morgana Wingard

Today, President Obama signed an executive order to advance the ambitious Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) and ensure that this multilateral and multisectoral effort to detect and respond to new infectious disease threats such as yellow fever or highly pathogenic avian influenza is sustained.

This formal policy will further strengthen and institutionalize our ongoing work to establish the capacity that every country needs to prevent, detect and rapidly respond to epidemic threats.

The next pandemic could begin anywhere—in South Asia, the Amazon basin, Central Africa, or on the Arabian Peninsula. In countries with weak health systems, the first cases at the start of an outbreak likely will be missed in the absence of sensitive surveillance, rapid laboratory support, and good information systems. Globalization and trade mean dangerous pathogens can be transported from an isolated, rural village to any major city in as little as 36 hours.

GHSA promotes global health security as a national priority through targeted capacity building activities, such as improving laboratory systems, strengthening disease surveillance, improving biosafety and biosecurity, expanding workforce development, and improving emergency management.

Over the last three years, we have worked tirelessly with partners around the world to launch and implement the GHSA and to leverage our engagement and leadership to gain concrete commitments from others. The GHSA has now grown to include 55 countries, international organizations, NGOs, private sector stakeholders, and a next generation leaders’ initiative.

Sparked by the GHSA, G-7 leaders, Nordic countries, and key G-20 partners have stepped up with new commitments, and the World Health Organization has now adopted a mechanism to assess countries using external evaluators and specific metrics. The Joint External Evaluation, as it is called, is an open, transparent, independent process to assess and improve global protection against health threats. The JEE is a stress test that allows countries to clearly identify the most urgent needs within their public health system and establish national plans, often for the first time, to address those needs using common metrics.

Avian influenza surveillance at Bangkok's Klongtoey Market. / Richard Nyberg, USAID

Avian influenza surveillance at Bangkok’s Klongtoey Market. / Richard Nyberg, USAID

But the JEE is just the beginning. As gaps are identified, they must be addressed. And to do that, we must continue to recognize that global health security is our national security and that this is a multisectoral effort, with health ministers working with agricultural and security ministers. And that the private sector and other NGOs are crucial to our success.

New diseases are emerging, drug resistance is rising, and more laboratories are processing dangerous microbes. This reality is the driving force for what we all want and what GHSA promises — a tighter, more sophisticated, collaborative and standardized global effort to advance both accountability and assistance and use the best science and tools to detect and defeat disease at the earliest possible moment.

To help advance GHS objectives, USAID is building on our long-running development efforts with not just ministries of health, but also ministries of agriculture, livestock, environment, rural development, and economic development — and private sector partners. USAID is actively working with our interagency partners in all 17 Phase I GHSA countries. We are actively supporting all 11 GHSA Action Packages with a special focus on zoonotic diseases, workforce development, disease surveillance, and antimicrobial resistance.

The unifying theme of our work is the so-called “One Health” approach, which brings together the sectors of animal health, human health, and the environment to address the burden of disease.  This multisectoral approach allows us to better address the full range of infectious diseases now emerging, including those that spill over from animals or result from antimicrobial resistance.

Combating zoonotic diseases is especially important because more than 70 percent of new infectious disease outbreaks originate in animals. Our work in this area involves strengthening animal health services, laboratory detection, outbreak response, and control programs.

Surveillance has been another focus for USAID, especially the detection of emerging and reemerging viral diseases emanating in animals. To date, USAID has targeted wildlife and livestock species (bats, rodents, poultry, swine and wild birds) that have historically been associated with spillover of zoonotic pathogens to people. Animals are sampled at high-risk disease transmission spots (such as mining sites, farms, markets) where there is likely exposure to humans.  The pathogens detected and their genomic signatures are used by host countries for risk assessments and for strengthening control programs. The program is actively sampling wildlife in 11 countries and has taken samples from more than 8,000 animals, proving the feasibility of mapping the global virome.

The comprehensive framework the Obama Administration is launching today will have a far-reaching impact on our ability to partner with new sectors to prevent, detect and respond to epidemic threats; leverage the full power and leadership of the U.S. Government for this effort; and move us closer to achieving the vision of a world safe and secure from infectious disease threats.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Harnessing the Power of Innovation to Save Mothers and Children

A mother and her daughter in Utter Pradesh, India. /PATH/Gabe Bienczycki

A mother and her daughter in Utter Pradesh, India. /PATH/Gabe Bienczycki

One year after the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were agreed upon, I am optimistic about the potential to reach many of the health targets, including the goal to end preventable deaths of mothers and children. My optimism is fueled by the commitment of country leaders around the world to “finish the job” and the many promising new innovations on the horizon that have the potential to transform health for women and children.

A leader in improving health around the world, USAID has played an important role in the progress made in maternal and child health globally. I was proud to work with the agency on the Child Survival: Call to Action in 2012, and to watch the progress that has been achieved since.

New evidence for the potential of innovation

At PATH, we’re working every day with USAID and its partners to save lives and improve health through innovation that makes health care more affordable, accessible and effective. Last year, as the SDGs were launched, we crowdsourced innovations from around the globe and asked experts to prioritize 30 innovations with great potential to save lives in the next 15 years. Building on that first effort, called Innovation Countdown 2030, this year we decided to hone in on maternal, newborn and child health.

Working with researchers at Johns Hopkins University, PATH modeled 11 women- and child-focused innovations identified through the IC2030 initiative and the contribution they could make toward USAID’s targets to end preventable child and maternal deaths. We assessed how these innovations could help to increase intervention rates in USAID’s 24 high-priority countries if they were used at the scale that other high performing countries have reached.

Our analysis estimates that 6.6 million mothers and children could be saved between today and 2030 if just these 11 innovations were scaled up.

Notable innovations

The overwhelming majority of lives saved come from innovations that increase women’s access to family planning. For example, Sayana Press makes the injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera more accessible by providing a lower-dose formulation in a prefilled, easy to use injection device. This enables community-level health workers to administer the contraceptive and makes it easier for women to access injectible contraceptives in their communities.

A woman in Uganda receives a dose of Sayana Press, an injectable contraceptive, from a village health worker. /PATH/Will Boase

A woman in Uganda receives a dose of Sayana Press, an injectable contraceptive, from a village health worker. /PATH/Will Boase

Other innovations with the greatest potential include new tools to monitor respiratory rates and devices to measure blood oxygen levels. These tools will save lives by improving the diagnosis and timely treatment of infants and children with pneumonia.

A mother practices kangaroo mother care in India. /Amy Fowler, USAID

A mother practices kangaroo mother care in India. /Amy Fowler, USAID

One simple, low-tech innovation that may save hundreds of thousands of lives is “kangaroo mother care,” which is prolonged skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and mother immediately after birth. This intimate physical contact improves thermal regulation of newborns. It also promotes exclusive breastfeeding, which is especially important for survival in low-resource settings. And it creates a strong psychological bond between the newborn and parent.

Innovation must be a priority

Our impact modeling shows how just 11 innovations can help USAID accelerate progress toward its goal of ending preventable maternal and child deaths. When scaled alongside other proven interventions, new and emerging innovations can truly be game-changing for mothers and children.

Given the importance of innovations to improve access, lower costs, and ensure effectiveness, I believe, for two major reasons, that USAID should focus even more attention on supporting countries to develop, introduce and scale the highest-priority innovations. Programs such as Saving Lives at Birth and the Global Development Lab are great examples of current efforts that are having an impact at the country level.

First, many countries want to strengthen their innovation ecosystems—engaging entrepreneurs, the private sector, and academia more effectively to develop and commercialize high-value innovations. Local innovators have incredible ingenuity and capacity to drive “frugal” innovations—low-cost, lifesaving innovations tailored to local needs.

Second, governments need access to the right data and the tools to analyze that data to assess innovations and health technologies and determine which should be introduced and supported with public funding.

With increased support to harness the power of innovation, I’m optimistic that USAID, low- and middle-income country governments, partners like PATH, and other stakeholders can end preventable maternal and child deaths and build stronger health systems and communities.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Amie Batson is the chief strategy officer and vice president of strategy and learning at PATH. Follow @PATHtweets.

RELATED LINKS

Why Investing in Entrepreneurs Reaps Big Rewards

Vava Angwenyi of Vava Coffee shares coffee with a coffee farmer and supplier in Kenya. Vava’s social enterprise is being supported by USAID’s Partnering to Accelerate Entrepreneurship Initiative through partner Intellecap. /Vava Coffee

Vava Angwenyi of Vava Coffee shares coffee with a coffee farmer and supplier in Kenya. Vava’s social enterprise is being supported by USAID’s Partnering to Accelerate Entrepreneurship Initiative through partner Intellecap. /Vava Coffee

“The biggest challenge is access to funding—it’s that simple.” I have heard this refrain from entrepreneurs for years. This time, I was listening to Vava Angwenyi—an entrepreneur who started the Kenya-based social enterprise Vava Coffee seven years ago—speak about the most difficult obstacle in growing her business.

USAID believes entrepreneurs are critical drivers of inclusive economic growth and job creation—key to ending extreme poverty. Small and medium enterprises generate 78 percent of jobs in low-income countries and are particularly important sources of livelihoods in poor and rural communities. It’s entrepreneurs like Vava—people who create jobs, drive economic growth, and innovate to improve lives through market-based solutions—who have the power to address the world’s most challenging problems.

Yet so many of these entrepreneurs in developing countries struggle to succeed—not because they don’t have good ideas or lack the drive, but because they are working in challenging ecosystems with limited access to financial resources and business development services. At the same time, impact investors—who are looking to deploy their capital for both financial and social returns—are often unable to find “investment-ready” enterprises.

Vava Coffee provides employment and sustainable revenues to various groups that make packaging for the brand, including the handmade colorful bags the coffee is sold in, made by the women of Nairobi's informal settlements. /Vava Coffee

Vava Coffee provides employment and sustainable revenues to various groups that make packaging for the brand, including the handmade colorful bags the coffee is sold in, made by the women of Nairobi’s informal settlements. /Vava Coffee

To address this gap between entrepreneurs and impact investors, USAID’s Partnering to Accelerate Entrepreneurship (PACE) Initiative is bringing more private capital to early-stage entrepreneurs and making impact investing easier. We work along all stages of the investment cycle—from sourcing, vetting and due diligence, to consulting support, technical assistance, and investment—to connect entrepreneurs and investors.

Since 2013, PACE has created a network of more than 40 incubators, accelerators and investors to address the obstacles that entrepreneurs around the world face so that entrepreneurs can grow their businesses, create jobs in their communities, and provide life-changing goods and services to underserved populations.

For example, Intellecap, a PACE partner that provides business solutions to social enterprises, worked with Vava to help her grow. “We helped her articulate the business and the scale up strategy through numbers and a crisp business plan,” says Stefanie Bauer, associate vice president of Intellecap. “Vava is much more confident about explaining the economics behind her business after she has gone through the financial modeling exercise with us.”

Beyond providing technical assistance to help Vava prepare her business to become more investment ready, Intellecap also helped Vava build her network and facilitated connections with investors.

Vava Angwenyi of Vava Coffee inspects a coffee beans processing plant in Kenya. Vava’s social enterprise is being supported by USAID’s Partnering to Accelerate Entrepreneurship Initiative through partner Intellecap. /Vava Coffee

Vava Angwenyi of Vava Coffee inspects a coffee beans processing plant in Kenya. Vava’s social enterprise is being supported by USAID’s Partnering to Accelerate Entrepreneurship Initiative through partner Intellecap. /Vava Coffee

Today, Vava Coffee has received global recognition for both the quality of its coffee and its social impact. Vava Coffee’s fair trade model provides a sustainable livelihood for their 30,000 smallholder farmers, whose income has increased by 16 times. In addition, Vava Coffee is working to expand access to credit and financial training for smallholder coffee farmers in Kenya and beyond, with a goal of reaching 130,000 farmers by 2018.

Vava still faces challenges ahead, and so do entrepreneurs who hope to follow in her footsteps. But she hopes that initiatives like PACE continue to “break down the barriers of access to funding, and make it easier for entrepreneurs that are doing good, changing lives, and eradicating poverty.”

The PACE Initiative continues to pilot and test new approaches for supporting entrepreneurs, like using guarantees from high net worth individuals to allow impact investors like MCE Social Capital to access bank capital that can then be lent to small and growing businesses, or leveraging local talent and local capital through regional impact investing funds with I&P.

I agree with Vava that there is still room for growth. And while I am proud of what PACE has accomplished—catalyzing more than $100 million of private investment that would have otherwise not happened—impact investments still represent only 0.02 percent of the $294 trillion in global financial markets.

Imagine what could be done with just a fraction more.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Rob Schneider is division chief, Global Partnerships, at USAID’s Center for Transformational Partnerships. Follow him at @RMHS360.

RELATED LINKS

Lighting the Career Path for Girls in the Energy Sector

A live line crew member at work for Kenya Power and Lighting Co. /Ellen Dragotto, USAID

A live line crew member at work for Kenya Power and Lighting Co. /Clare Novak, Energy Markets Group

Where does a girl dream about working as an engineer and running her country’s power facility? It certainly was not the first career choice for Queen Esther, a Nigerian schoolgirl who had always dreamed of becoming a fashion designer.

But after spending a day at her father’s workplace, Nigeria’s main electricity utility, EkoElectricity Distribution Co., she became excited about new job possibilities. “Now I want to become an engineer because it’s really cool!” she said.

Cynthia Wanja, a Kenyan student, hadn’t thought of working in a power station either until she visited her father’s job at the Kenya Power and Lighting Co. and thought it was “awesome.” “I never knew there is work for civil engineers at power stations,” she said. “It sounds very interesting.”

At EkoElectricty Power Distribution Co. in Nigeria, girls learn about principles of electricity. /EkoElectricity Power Distribution Co.

At EkoElectricity Power Distribution Co. in Nigeria, girls learn about principles of electricity. /EkoElectricity

And for Sarah, one of the 44 Jordanian girls visiting their parents’ company, the experience was empowering. “The future is in the girls’ hands and they will help build the country,” she said enthusiastically after touring the Electricity Distribution Co.

These three girls and dozens of others in Nigeria, Kenya, Jordan and Macedonia participated in Bring Your Daughter to Work Day events, the first of their kind at their respective countries’ power utility and, for many of the girls, the first visit to their parents’ workplace.

Girls visit a substation at Kenya Power and Lighting Co.’s Bring Your Daughter to Work Day. /Ellen Dragotto, USAID

Girls visit a substation at Kenya Power and Lighting Co.’s Bring Your Daughter to Work Day. /Clare Novak, Energy Markets Group

The events, supported by USAID’s Engendering Utilities program, expose girls to the many job options in the power sector.

Women worldwide have traditionally been underrepresented and often excluded from employment opportunities in the energy sector. Compared to eight other global industries, the energy sector ranks last for gender diversity of corporate boards. Only 16 percent of board members at the world’s 200 largest electric utilities are women.

In Jordan, for instance, women are still a minority in the workforce, and those employed commonly choose jobs in health and education, fields perceived as more appropriate for women. The USAID program aims to better understand the challenges that women working in the energy sector face, while improving their employment opportunities at power utilities.

As part of the program, Bring Your Daughter to Work Day events were designed to enhance girls’ interest in the energy sector early on.

While Queen Esther and 35 other Nigerian girls learned about lighting and energy conservation and how energy is generated through hydropower and transmitted to light city streets, they were also encouraged to continue to study and think about their futures without gender limitations.

“Promoting gender equality is fundamental to our company,” engineer Oladele Amoda, the general manager and CEO of EkoElectricity, told the girls during their visit. “Already, women hold four out of our company’s six top management positions.” In Nigeria, where women are disadvantaged in most aspects of livelihood and well-being—including employment, income and health—the Nigerian electric utility provides a positive example for others to follow.

Girls learn about wind generators during Bring Your Daughter to Work Day at Jordan's Electricity Distribution Co. /Ellen Dragotto, USAID

Girls learn about wind generators during Bring Your Daughter to Work Day at Jordan’s Electricity Distribution Co. /Ellen Dragotto, USAID

Having women join the energy sector is a win for everyone. Studies in other business sectors have shown that investing in girls and women has a positive impact on productivity and sustainable growth. And including women in a company’s management team can result in a richer set of ideas and more comprehensive solutions to challenges.

Energy companies are often among the largest employers in a country. Improving women’s access to jobs in electric power companies leads to improved development outcomes beyond the energy sector, including increased economic growth and better lives for families.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Ellen Dragotto is a senior energy specialist in USAID’s Office of Energy and Infrastructure and manages the Engendering Utilities program.


RELATED LINKS

 

Improving—and Sustaining—Food and Nutrition Security for the Most Vulnerable: A New Food for Peace Strategy

After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, merchants such as Belleus Pierre, 31, used T-Cash to sell basic food staples to families benefiting from the USAID-funded food assistance program implemented by Mercy Corps. Her participation in the program meant she had a steady flow of customers to her store, providing her own family with much needed income. /Lisa Hoashi, Mercy Corps

After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, merchants such as Belleus Pierre, 31, used T-Cash to sell basic food staples to families benefiting from the USAID-funded food assistance program implemented by Mercy Corps. Her participation in the program meant she had a steady flow of customers to her store, providing her own family with much needed income. /Lisa Hoashi, Mercy Corps

Next week, USAID’s Office of Food for Peace (FFP), the largest provider of food assistance in the world, is marking a milestone—we’re issuing a new 10-year food assistance and food security strategy. An office unique within USAID for its dual relief and development mandate, FFP’s new strategy focuses on getting results for millions of vulnerable people living in areas characterized by extreme poverty and deprivation.

The strategy draws on the full range of tools available to us, from much needed American food commodities and specialized nutrition products, to market-based interventions that allow populations affected by conflict and natural disaster to select healthful foods available locally. Its programmatic theory of change is steeped in evidence-based learning about what works to protect and enhance the lives and livelihoods of the most vulnerable.

A woman receives USAID commodities at Bambasi refugee camp in Ethiopia. /Kiyori Ueno, WFP

A woman receives USAID commodities at Bambasi refugee camp in Ethiopia. /Kiyori Ueno, WFP

Building on our 2006-2010 strategy, this one focuses more deeply on strengthening systems and institutions to sustain success, elevating governance, social cohesion and conflict sensitivity. It places a central emphasis on understanding local context and adapting to changing circumstances to remain relevant and effective. It re-embraces our long commitment to gender equity and acknowledges the importance of engaging youth to advance sustained food and nutrition security.

The new strategy captures the best of what we currently do, but challenges FFP and our partners to strive for greater impact with greater efficiency and sustainability. It also embraces “nutrition security”—deliberately signaling the importance of a wide range of nutrition, sanitation and health factors that contribute to improved food security outcomes.

The need for our work has never been more important, whether we consider the growing impact of humanitarian crises that have displaced more people than any time on record, or the more subtle but equally intractable issue of chronic poverty and recurrent crisis which today preclude millions of people from achieving their potential.

Armed with new health, agriculture and nutrition practices she learned from USAID, Monjuara can continue to dream of a better life for her family and is paying it forward in her community. In Bangladesh, where over 60 million people survive on less than $1.25 per day, USAID is arming millions of parents like Monjuara with the skills to break the cycle of poverty. /Josh Estey for USAID

Armed with new health, agriculture and nutrition practices she learned from USAID, Monjuara can continue to dream of a better life for her family and is paying it forward in her community. In Bangladesh, where over 60 million people survive on less than $1.25 per day, USAID is arming millions of parents like Monjuara with the skills to break the cycle of poverty. /Josh Estey for USAID

While the challenge is great, so too is our commitment. There is unprecedented consensus that building the resilience of vulnerable communities, including their food and nutrition security, is key to our larger goals of ending extreme poverty, enhancing stability and spurring economic growth. The communities we work with, driven to improve their lives—as well as the committed governments, NGOs, United Nations agencies, and private sector actors that support them—agree on the urgency of this agenda.

Since its establishment in 1954, Food for Peace has reached more than 4 billion people. And today, with an annual budget that tops $2 billion, we and our partners have an outsized role to play in the global development community’s goal to end hunger in our time.

We extend our thanks to the U.S. Congress and the American people for their sustained support of our global efforts. And to all of our partners, whose expertise and tireless efforts in some of the most challenging environments in the world shaped this forward-looking strategy.

Despite the challenging times in which we live, we look to the future with a positive vision and a passion to make that vision a reality.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dina Esposito is the director of USAID’s Office of Food for Peace. Follow her on @DEsposito_FFP.

RELATED LINKS

Check out more on USAID’s food assistance programs.
Read more on how we can #endhunger by looking beyond food.
Learn more about the new Food for Peace food assistance and food security strategy.
Follow @USAIDFFP; @DEsposito_FFP

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