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Archives for Democracy and Governance

Government Contractors and Trafficking in Persons—what we are doing to cut those links

On July 7, 2011, the U.S. Department of Justice reported that the ArmorGroup North America has paid $7.5 million to “settle accusations that they filed false claims on a contract to guard the United States Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan.”  The Associated Press article published by The New York Times on Friday, July 8, noted that “The State Department said that the company’s guards visited brothels in Kabul, that ArmorGroup North America’s management knew about the guards’ conduct and that the company misrepresented the work experience of 38 guards at the embassy. The brothel visits violated the federal Trafficking Victims Protection Act, according to the government.”

Unfortunately for those who work combating trafficking in persons (TIP), a story like this sounds all too familiar.  Over the years, many reports from human rights activists and scholars, including some of my own research, have documented the link between contractors and TIP.  In November 2007, while working at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, I published an Op-Ed in the San Francisco Chronicle about contractors in Kabul doing just this—visiting “Chinese restaurants” that were fronts for trafficked females.

The U.S. Government takes these reports very seriously.

This summer, USAID is working on a new strategy to combat trafficking in humans, and with colleagues throughout the U.S. Government, on a National Action Plan (NAP) to implement UN Security Resolution 1325—focused on women, peace and security. We are also committed to making sure that all implementing partners and their subcontractors, particularly those serving alongside military deployments, peacekeeping missions or anywhere with a heightened threat of human trafficking—whether for forced labor, forced prostitution, debt bondage or other forms of TIP—are in compliance with the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act, and the new USAID Code of Conduct on Combating Trafficking in Persons (PDF, 40KB).

Data is notoriously hard to come by that reflects what people working in country witness. We are considering fielding focus groups and a benchmark survey in some countries with military and peacekeeping deployments. Our aim is to gain a more precise understanding of the knowledge, awareness, and experience of those who have had or know those who have had contact with trafficking victims and/or experience with brothels while on assignment.  The data would be used to create a social marketing campaign to be used as a tool to measure changes in attitudes and behaviors.

This focus on implementing partners is just one part of the planned new strategy for combating TIP and our NAP for 1325.  We are working hard to develop other measurable, additive, time-bound commitments so we can be held accountable. Follow us on this blog to keep track of our progress and to stay abreast of this important issue. Our goal is to engage and work with those who share our commitment to tackling TIP issues.

Observing the Brave in Vilnius

by Sarah Mendelson, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau of Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance

We’re Together, Even When We Are Not

The Arab Spring has left many activists at the Community of Democracies hopeful—perhaps none more so than Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma. She wasn’t physically in attendance but virtually and spiritually, her presence was felt. She appeared in a video message recorded from somewhere in authoritarian Burma that enabled her to join us during Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s meeting on Thursday afternoon with democratic and human rights activists from around the world and then again at the Ministerial Friday. “Suu,” as she is called by a Burmese activist, connected the dots linking the Baltic experience and the Arab Spring to the struggle in Burma. She was the embodiment of grace and patience as she declared from her room, far away, that she was “full of hope and full of anticipation for what the not too distant future will bring to us.” This was her second appearance at one of the Community of Democracies gatherings having sent a message under similar circumstances eleven years ago.

When the video played in the meeting with activists, it was as if she was one of them. When it played in the ministerial, following addresses by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and other foreign ministers, it was as if she too were a minister.

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USAID’S Work in Foreign Police Assistance: Lessons from the Field

Each year, the United States Government invests billions of dollars to train and equip police in countries that present a vital security interest such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Colombia, and Mexico.  In FY 2009, USAID spent $45 million to fund 40 civilian police assistance programs in 27 countries. Activities ranged from inclusion of civilian police in core development programs, such as those designed to reduce gender-based violence, to programs that focus explicitly on civilian police performance. Many people ask: “Why should USAID provide civilian police assistance?” The answer is simple. Civilian police are the largest representative of government in many countries and serve as lynchpins for a broad range of governance functions.

“For the average citizen, civilian police is the most visible symbol of government and an indicator of quality of governance. The relationship between civilian police and the community almost always mirrors the overall relationship between the citizenry and its government. Civilian police action, conduct and reputation tend to reflect on the ability of the entire criminal justice and, indeed, of the entire government, to carry out its functions effectively.”  (A Field Guide For USAID Democracy and Governance Officers: Assistance to Civilian Law Enforcement in Developing Countries, p15)

Many sectors, including agriculture, health and economic growth benefit from improved law enforcement.  For example, improved security can enable freer transit of goods to markets, increase investment in areas that may have been commercially underserved, or enable business expansion.  Effective policing is also critically important for reducing gender-based violence (GBV) and trafficking in persons (TIP).

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Harnessing the Power of Music to Combat Human Trafficking

Simon Goff, CEO of the MTV EXIT Foundation

“Human trafficking: No, No, No” rang out the chant from 20,000 people, repeating ASEAN Secretary-General Dr. Surin Pitsuwan’s call to action live from stage. They had travelled from across Thailand to be there and braved torrential rain, however, their spirits were not dampened. They were there to see their favorite artists perform and join a fight. A fight that is crucial for their futures.

In Chiang Mai at the 700th Anniversary stadium, MTV EXIT’s 26th concert in Asia was in full swing. The crowd had been treated to performances by Thailand’s top bands including ETC, Slot Machine, Thaitanium, and Australian popstar Kate Miller-Heidke. However, one of the highlights was a local all-girl band called Chaba that had won an MTV EXIT “battle of the bands” competition to perform in front of thousands. If the crowd daunted them they certainly didn’t show it. Between performances crucial information about human trafficking was delivered to the crowd by the artists as well as from the concert MCs, video presentations, and speeches from guests,  including Secretary-General Pitsuwan and the US Ambassador to Thailand Kristie Kenney.

As the rain finally began to recede, the excitement amongst the audience reached fever pitch in anticipation of the headline act. Korean superstars Super Junior M were performing for the first time in Chiang Mai. As they took to the stage, they were met by deafening screams from their faithful fans. After performing one of their hits they addressed the crowd through an interpreter giving the all-important messages about the issue. After the concert, the work was not yet done.  The following day, band members had the opportunity to see the issue first hand, visiting a local shelter for survivors of trafficking. It was an incredibly positive experience with two young Thai survivors giving the band a lesson in Thai cooking.

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A Dream in a Nightmare in the Eastern DRC

A guest post by Dr. Denis Mukwege, Director of Panzi Hospital in Bukavu, DRC.   Dr. Mukwege is the winner of the 2010-2011 King audouin International Development Prize and recently spoke at USAID in a roundtable discussion about gender based violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
The views in this post do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of USAID or the U.S. Government.

A few decades ago, the American pastor, Martin Luther King shook the conscience of his contemporaries in his speech with the famous line, I have a dream. This speech was written from the perspective of the “American dream”, a dream which is founded on the idea of rising up, of pulling yourself up by your bootstraps. It also implies an attitude, which consists of pushing back the boundaries much further, of refusing the idea of fate and of hoping for a better future.

It is interesting to note that Martin Luther King’s dream unfolded against the backdrop of a social nightmare.

Today everybody knows that women in the eastern DRC are living a nightmare. Hundreds of women are raped every day. They are kidnapped and reduced to sexual slavery. Others have been raped by dozens of armed men who take pleasure in mutilating their genitals – a savagery that is unprecedented in the region’s history. Meanwhile unscrupulous traders and multinationals have joined forces with these militias and have taken to exploiting the minerals in the region for the manufacture of mobile phones and computers.

I cannot stress this enough : the organised rape of women in the eastern DRC is designed to destroy all of society in this region. In a country where the unemployment rate for men is estimated to be over 80%, women constitute the main pillar of socio-economic life, because of their hard labour in the fields or their small businesses selling their products at local markets. In fact, women are responsible for children’s education; they also pay for the cost of tuition and of medical care. A raped woman is equivalent to the long-term destruction of a family with several children. What will happen in the future to these thousands of children who were conceived in rape? These children, who have no identity, who cannot trace their descent and who are rejected by their communities? How will they integrate in tomorrow’s society? In a region where indifference is killing communities, USAID’s grassroots work can make all the difference.

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Ordinary People Make Extraordinary Contributions to Combat Trafficking

About the author: Holly Burkhalter is Vice President of Government Relations for International Justice Mission

The sheer size of the State Department’s 11th Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report, released this week, is a reflection of the enormity and ubiquity of the crime of modern day slavery. Yet there is much to celebrate in the document as well. Courage, recovery, and heroic leadership by ordinary people are springing up in almost every one of the 184 countries in the report.

The ten heroes honored in this year’s report show what can be done when brave people—from government officials to survivors themselves—engage in the fight against slavery. Slavery and trafficking aren’t inevitable. As the TIP Report shows in countries around the world, serious government effort and partnership with essential NGO’s can bring slave traders to justice.

Take for example Darlene Pajarito, an assistant city prosecutor in Zamboanga City in the Philippines. Ms. Pajarito not only secured the first anti-trafficking conviction in the Philippines but has spread the effort by training, supporting and prodding other government officials. This kind of courage can be very dangerous; Ms. Pajarito put herself in harm’s way to make her country safer for the poorest, youngest, and most vulnerable. The Philippines is a country that has made significant progress in combatting trafficking over the years. Prosecutor Parajito is an important part of the reason why.

The power of redemption can be seen in the work of Leonel Dubon, one of this year’s extraordinary TIP heroes. Mr. Dubon provides shelter and services for adolescent girls who were victimized in Guatemala’s sex trade. When his NGO sponsor ran out of money, Leonel used his own retirement funds to support fifty children in his care.

Personally, my favorite story of redemption involves a group of ten Vietnamese girls who were sold into Cambodian brothels nine years ago. International Justice Mission (IJM) learned of the girls in 2002 and went to local authorities to demand their rescue. It wasn’t until the U.S. Ambassador to Cambodia, Charles Ray, invoked the provisions of the newly-enacted Trafficking Victims Protection Act that the Cambodian authorities collaborated with my organization to rescue the children from brothels and apprehend the pimps, madams, and brothel owners who sold them.

At that time, there was very little aftercare capacity for such tiny children (the youngest was five; one was seven and had spent three years in the brothel), but NGO aftercare providers stepped in and the U.S. Government provided extensive assistance to create more facilities. Today, Cambodia has some of the best aftercare for young trafficking victims in the world. And while Cambodia has a ways to go to eliminate trafficking, the exploitation of very young children in prostitution has declined dramatically.

And the little girls? I am happy to tell you that they are well and happy and thriving. They live in small group homes with a house mother and have hopes and dreams of high school and college. Their future is now very, very bright.

Armenian Women Set Priorities for Increasing Political Participation

As featured from the National Democratic Institute

More than 300 Armenian women from different political parties, civic organizations, government agencies and geographic regions came together for a two-day conference in Yerevan last month to discuss policy solutions to the challenges they all face. Together, they called for increasing women’s political and economic participation, better access to health care and a reduction in domestic violence.

Armenian women at a two-day conference in Yerevan last month to discuss policy solutions to the challenges they all face. Photo Credit: NDI

While women make up more than half of Armenia’s population, they won just 12 of 131 seats in the last parliamentary elections in 2012. Men’s average monthly salary is more than one-and-a-half times that of women. The 2010 report by the World Economic Forum ranked Armenia 106 out of 131 countries for political representation and empowerment of women.

The “Women in Politics” conference, hosted by NDI with support from the United States Agency for International Development, produced a draft policy platform that women’s groups and political parties can use as a blueprint for change. In the political and economic areas, for example, the women proposed creation of a quota to increase women’s representation in national and local elected bodies and the passage of a gender equity law to improve business opportunities and working conditions for women.

In addition, all but a few conference participants signed a letter to the president of Armenia requesting a 30 percent quota for women on political party electoral lists. They also asked that women be placed on the lists at regular intervals, such as every other spot. Currently, 15 percent of a party list must be women, but their names are often placed near the bottom, where they are less likely to get elected. Under a list system, voters choose a party rather than an individual candidate. The number of seats the party wins is determined by its percentage of the vote, and the people who fill the seats are determined in the order they appear on the list.

Regarding health care and domestic violence, the platform proposed that the government fund preventive testing and health services for all women over 18, and that it pass legislation establishing a legal definition of domestic violence consistent with international norms. It is hard to combat domestic abuse effectively in Armenia — both legally and with public education campaigns — because people’s ideas vary on what domestic abuse is.

The women leaders plan to use the document to encourage political parties to address the issues as they create campaign platforms for next year’s parliamentary elections. It also offers potential platform planks for women who are considering running for office. Civil society groups can advocate for and monitor progress in how the recommendations are carried out.

The recommendations will be refined over the next several months by working groups focusing on the individual issues. The groups will include conference representatives, including women from both the capital of Yerevan and the regions, and political party and civil society members. Experts from academia, international organizations and government bodies also will be invited to lend their expertise.

The momentum and publicity surrounding the event had an immediate effect. In a speech the day after the conference, Prime Minister Tigran Sargsyan called for increasing the number of women in the executive and legislative branches to 30 percent. There is currently no quota for women serving in the executive branch and the few who do serve mostly as support staff.

A week after the conference, the National Assembly voted on a new election code, which included a requirement that women constitute 20 percent of party lists and, for the first time, that every fifth candidate after the second spot be a woman. These quotas would be some of the most progressive in the region. But there are two ways that parliamentarians are elected: by party list or by single member district. In the latter arrangement, a candidate runs to represent the district and its residents rather than the political party. The Armenian parliament is comprised of 56 single member district representatives and 75 members from party lists.

The draft election code also helps women seek single member seats by reducing the fee to run from 2.5 million to one million Armenian dram ($6,602 to $2,641). This provision will encourage less-established candidates with fewer resources, which women often are. In the last parliamentary elections, only five women competed for this type of seat and none was elected. The draft election code has passed the parliament and is awaiting the president’s signature.

Home Coming

I’m normally not an anxious traveler but I’m experiencing some deep unresolved, existential anxiety.  As I write this, I’m headed to Vilnius, Lithuania, for the first time in my life.  Today, June 29, is the 70th anniversary of the massacre of all the remaining Jews in a village in Lithuania where my father was born. A strange and ironic day to choose for a return to “der heim” (Yiddish for “the homeland”.) Or, maybe, it’s exactly the right day.

For the next few days, Vilnius is hosting the Community of Democracies (CD). Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, foreign ministers, presidents, and front line human rights and democratic activists from around the globe will be coming together to help new and fragile democracies. I will be representing USAID at this gathering and focusing my participation on  CD’s newest initiative, the Democracy Partnership Challenge. This new initiative aims to encourage and support transparency and democratic reforms  in countries that have had recent democratic breakthroughs.  For me, my years of work culminating in this trip to Vilnius is a bridge to my family’s history back in Lithuania—what Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. described as ” the arch of history bending toward justice.”

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Stop Human Trafficking App Challenge

Sarah Mendelson, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau of Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance

When was the last time you used your mobile phone to look up an address, stream a video clip, or play a game? Now think about the last time you used your mobile phone to support human rights, raise awareness for a cause, or contribute to sustainable development. What would the world look like if we spent as much time using our cell phones to contribute to development as we do watching YouTube or sending email? What new tools could be developed—or new uses for existing technology found—to solve some of the world’s most pressing development challenges?

Our new Center of Excellence on Democracy, Human Rights and Governance—launching later this summer—will devote expertise and resources to tackle these very questions, paying particular attention to marrying innovation and the challenge of protecting against and preventing human rights abuse.

With USAID Forward, an ambitious and transformative reform agenda that changes the way the Agency does business, USAID is leveraging the capabilities of our partners and challenging development professionals, countries, and communities to create new relationships that leverage technology and development to deliver real results.  “Stop Human Trafficking App Challenge” is just one of the ways USAID is fostering creativity in technology and development.

In partnership with the Demi and Ashton Foundation (DNA) and NetHope Inc. (a consortium of international humanitarian organizations and major technology companies), USAID announced the Stop Human Trafficking App Challenge in Russia on June 14, 2011. The aim of the challenge is to develop the most effective mobile technology application to combat trafficking in persons in Russia. Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for human trafficking.  A 2008 benchmark survey supported by the Ford Foundation suggests that 8 out of 10 young Russian women think that human trafficking is a very serious issue, and that tens of thousands of Russian women who were trafficked at one point in their lives are living today in Russia.  It is time we all did more to address their needs. The contest aims to raise awareness of sex and labor trafficking and help civil society organizations mobilize to provide services to survivors.

Contestants from Russia and across the region, including diaspora communities, have until August 8, 2011 to submit entries. The technology application that wins the Grand Prize will be implemented in Russia through a pilot project with a domestic anti-trafficking organization. The Grand Prize winner will also receive $15,000 and travel expenses to the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) in New York. The First Prize winner will receive $10,000 and travel expenses to CGI.

Stakeholders from Russia and the wider region—including Russian anti-trafficking organizations, international nongovernmental organizations, technology companies, and the public—will have the opportunity to judge the submissions based on their usefulness in preventing trafficking, raising awareness, providing services to survivors, innovation, ease of use, and potential for large-scale application.

Check out USAID’s IMPACT blog this week for more stories about USAID TIP programs around in the world in support of the Department of State’s eleventh annual Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report release.

For further information, or to enter the contest, please visit the Stop Human Trafficking App Challenge. This site is also available in a Russian version.

For further information on USAID’s work on Trafficking in Persons, please visit:

Interpreting the Arab Spring at DRG: 2.0

The events of the Arab Spring have had tectonic effects on Middle Eastern civil society from Tahrir Square to Benghazi. Today at 11:30am, USAID is hosting a panel of policy experts, moderated by our own Deputy Administrator, discussing how the international community can best respond to this historic opportunity to support freedom and opportunity in a region that has had neither. We’d like you to join us for that conversation. Streaming live as part of our upcoming conference: DRG 2.0: Promoting Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance in 2011, the panel will take questions via social media, and you’re invited to participate.

You can follow along and participate on Twitter @USAID #DRG2011.

On December 17th, 2010, a young Tunisian man named Mohamed Bouazizi doused himself with gasoline and lit himself on fire. This desperate act by a man with no hope for a better life resonated with millions of Arabs and propelled the region into a period of dramatic, disruptive change that continues to evolve on a daily basis. The actions of protesters across the region have been spurred by well-documented grievances, such as the lack of jobs and housing, petty and grand corruption, human rights abuses that robbed people of their sense of justice and dignity, and an overwhelming sense of disconnect between the state and society.

Prior to December 17th, citizens in Arab states across the region lacked any formal political or constitutional process to meaningfully engage with governments that would have allowed them to play an active role in solving these fundamental problems. Therefore, when people demanded change after decades of political, social and economic stagnation, these demands were inherently revolutionary.

The events that began in Tunisia are now being compared to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the revolutions that spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe in the months that followed. However, while the events in the Middle East are of similar historical significance, they are playing out in a far different manner. Rather than a uniform “model” for transition, the region is simultaneously seeing relatively peaceful transitions of great promise in Tunisia and Egypt, nascent and uncertain attempts at regime-led reform in Morocco and Jordan, protests being met by the full weight of the state’s security forces in Syria, foreign intervention in Bahrain, and civil war and international military and humanitarian action in Libya. The one commonality among these revolutions is that while national leadership has been radically changed, the bureaucratic infrastructure of autocratic and authoritarian states remains relatively unchanged and a major challenge for reorienting these governments.

Join us today as we discuss these issues in-depth during our panel “Interpreting the Arab Spring” 11:30 AM on Monday. Presenters include:

  • Hady Amr, Deputy Assistant Adminstrator, Bureau for the Middle East, USAID
  • Lorne Craner, President, of International Republican Institute
  • Michele Dunne, Senior Associate at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and
  • Robin Wright, Senior Fellow at U.S. Institute of Peace

The session will be moderated by Deputy Administrator Donald Steinberg

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