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Archives for Youth

Transforming Gender Norms and Ending Child Marriage: The Role of Boys

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. During this time IMPACT will highlight USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence.

Child marriage has recently gained heightened attention by donors, researchers, activists, program implementers, and policymakers. The international community has increasingly recognized child marriage as a violation of girls’ rights, health, and well-being, and efforts to prevent and respond to child marriage have prioritized critical “hot spots” where the practice is particularly grave and widespread. Yet, it is also crucial to shed light on a current “blind spot” in these efforts: the role of boys in ending child marriage.

When males are included in strategies and interventions to address child marriage, the focus is mostly on the key role that men play as powerful gatekeepers: fathers and religious and community leaders, whose support must be galvanized to intervene on behalf of girls. The forward-looking USAID Vision for Action on Child Marriage, for example, includes engaging men as an important part of mobilizing communities to shift norms that perpetuate child marriage. But the Vision does not stop there; it further states that, “equally important is reaching out to boys at a young age to encourage equitable gender attitudes and norms so that they can be allies in preventing child marriage and change agents within their communities.” This aspect of male engagement is usually not highlighted in child marriage discussions, yet raises a vital question: What needs to happen to create a generation of boys that resists and rejects child marriage for themselves in the future?

A young girl.  Photo Credit: Kendra Helmer/USAID

The international community has increasingly recognized child marriage as a violation of girls’ rights, health, and well-being, and efforts to prevent and respond to child marriage have prioritized critical “hot spots” where the practice is particularly grave and widespread. Yet, it is also crucial to shed light on a current “blind spot” in these efforts: the role of boys in ending child marriage. Photo Credit: Kendra Helmer/USAID

This “demand-side” orientation requires long-term investments aimed at changing the social and behavioral gender norms that drive child marriage. What if all future men refused to marry a child bride? Though directly addressing this side of the equation is seldom mentioned, there are promising interventions with young girls and boys that seek to transform gender attitudes and behaviors with the goal of promoting gender equality more broadly. One example is the USAID-funded Gender Roles, Equality, and Transformation (GREAT) project.

Although GREAT does not directly address child marriage, it works with adolescents (ages 10-19) and their communities to reduce gender-based violence and improve reproductive health in Uganda. Building on the CHOICES project in Nepal, GREAT recognizes early adolescence as a window of opportunity—a time when the formation of gender norms and identities is taking place. The project utilizes participatory activities to engage young girls and boys in gender equality discussions. For example, project staff ask young girls and boys to pile-sort cards representing various household and community tasks, to show who is responsible for them. Girls and boys (including sisters and brothers) see the pile of tasks assigned to girls steadily grow larger than the boys’ pile. The activity prompts conversations about fairness, as boys remark on the larger burden carried by their sisters.

These types of “a-ha” moments are crucial entryways to deeper critical reflections that can begin a journey towards gender equality. By tapping into young boys’ sense of justice at a very young age, interventions such as these, which seek to transform gender norms early in the process of childhood development, hold the promise of shaping a future generation of men as allies in wiping out child marriage globally.

Testing Readers in the Early Grades in Pakistan

I wish you could have been there. The little girl, a third grader, in a sky blue uniform with a white sash sat across from the evaluator. Her manner was shy, her voice barely audible but her dark eyes were determined. She was going to do her best, no doubt about it, despite a bunch of strangers standing around to watch.

A young girl in Pakistan attempts to read the story of Rani, testing her reading and comprehension skills as part of an Early Grade Reading Assessment being carried out in Pakistan.  / Christie Vilsack

A young girl in Pakistan attempts to read the story of Rani, testing her reading and comprehension skills as part of an Early Grade Reading Assessment being carried out in Pakistan. / Christie Vilsack

The evaluator explained that she could help us understand how children read by participating in some word games. He told her about himself and asked her to do the same. He asked about the language she uses at home with her family.

Each page required a certain task. The first determined whether she knew where to begin reading on the page and in what direction. She used her pointer finger to show that she did.

Next he asked her to say the name of some letters, and then to name some simple words. She could do this also.

Then he asked her to say the sounds produced by letters (b is the sound made by the letter “b”). And then he gave her some made up words to sound out like pum and tep. Most of us remember this as phonics, which we learned in kindergarten and first grade. This task was more difficult for her.

When he asked her to read a short paragraph she stumbled through the words and the timer went off long before she finished. Anyone watching could tell it was the letter sounds that were tripping her up.

She was so busy trying to decipher the words that the meaning behind the story escaped her. She couldn’t tell the evaluator why the character, Rani, was scared of what was behind the door, or why she smiled when she saw it was just a mouse.

By now 33,000 children in Pakistan have been tested, a random sampling in each of Pakistan’s seven administrative units. The test that was used in Pakistan is called EGRA, the Early Grade Reading Assessment, and it was developed with World Bank and USAID support to RTI International here in the United States, starting in 2005.

EGRA is an essential tool in our educational toolbox as USAID invests in teaching 100 million children to read in 39 countries around the world. The EGRA instrument is translated into the local language and tests the foundational skills of reading as well as reading fluency and comprehension. It can help teachers know which skills need more attention and can help policy makers know which aspects of instruction need more attention and funding.

The evaluator in a primary school in Pakistan talks with the young girl about the reading assessment, explaining how it works and what she will be doing. Credit: Christie Vilsack

The evaluator in a primary school in Pakistan talks with the young girl about the reading assessment, explaining how it works and what she will be doing. / Christie Vilsack

If you’ve had a child in a U.S. school then he or she has probably taken DIBELS© or another oral assessment in the early grades to test her or his understanding of the key building blocks of reading.

EGRA was inspired by DIBELS and other early grade assessments and experts at RTI, USAID and the World Bank, other institutions picked the key skills and subtests that predict reading competency and can be tested in the context of developing countries. EGRA is so easy to administer that any of us could do it with our own children and get a sense of their strengths and weaknesses.

We can use the data we gather from the test to help ministries of education determine how best to proceed to meet the reading needs of their students and where to invest their scarce resources.  EGRA is also a diagnostic tool that can provide teachers and principals a roadmap for improving teaching and learning. USAID works to build capacity at the ministry level, train teachers and develop textbooks in a languages that children speak and understand, and produce supplemental reading materials so that government officials, communities, and parents develop sustainable programs that improve students’ reading skills.

In developing countries, the solutions are not difficult to understand. They mirror the solutions here at home. Those who work on these issues say it’s carrying out the solutions under difficult circumstances that is a bigger problem.

How do you administer tests if no one in the country knows how to assess early grade students? If schools are far from cities and towns and transportation is difficult? If schools have been closed by insurgents? How do you administer the test if an earthquake has suspended classes? How do you get to villages high in the mountains to administer the test? And if you get there and there aren’t the necessary number of students in the classroom to make the test statistically correct because they’re farming with their parents in the fields, what do you do?

It’s essential to find ways around such barriers because the most important person in the room is the child who wants to learn, who wants to know about the girl, Rani, in the story and why she smiles at the end.

The little girl before me smiles at the evaluator as the assessment ends, smiles shyly at all of us because she has done her best. We leave with a sense of purpose. It’s hard to teach 100 million children to read, but it’s not impossible. And, when we succeed, this little girl and many like her will be able to raise her own children, including her daughters, in a culture that values education and the economic and global security it ensures.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Christie Vilsack is USAID’s Senior Advisor for International Education

Using Photography to Evaluate Project Impact

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. During this time IMPACT will highlight USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence.

As researchers, it is sometimes easy to become engrossed in the mechanics of the research process – fretting over sample size, quality control, response bias and other technicalities. Admittedly, there are moments when we fail to really “see” the actual people our research strives to help.

My colleague Jeffrey Edmeades and I were reminded of this while in Ethiopia’s Amhara region for a project working to improve the lives and future opportunities for child brides in the region. Called TESFA, which means “hope” in Amharic, the project was implemented by CARE Ethiopia, evaluated by the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and funded by the Nike Foundation. TESFA gave young, married, extremely marginalized girls unprecedented opportunities to learn about their health, to interact with their peers, and to participate in the social, economic and political life of their families and communities.

A young married girl is learning how to use a camera during the first day of a week long Participatory Research Activity using the  Photovoice method. She, along with nine other program participants were asked to use photography to document their lives and the impact the TESFA program had on them. Photo credit: Robin Hayes

A young married girl is learning how to use a camera during the first day of a week long Participatory Research Activity using the Photovoice method. She, along with nine other program participants were asked to use photography to document their lives and the impact the TESFA program had on them. Photo credit: Robin Hayes

Most of the more than 5,000 girls we worked with over the three-year project had similar stories: Married off by their parents at nine, 14, 16, to much older men – strangers, really. Forced to drop out of school. Frightening, unwanted first sexual encounters.

Because of the remarkable similarity in their experiences, it was at times easy to fall into viewing these girls – our “research subjects”– as a large, homogenous group. Our experience in Ethiopia reminded us how critical it is not to have such a lens, but rather, to see participants as the individuals they are. We found that giving greater prominence to the individual experiences of program beneficiaries – in their own voices – illuminated our research and evaluation processes.

Specifically, during the final year of TESFA, we implemented the Photovoice strategy, which gives marginalized communities an opportunity to represent themselves through photography, as an element of program evaluation. It can also serve as a tool for advocacy and policy change. If adapted into a program, it can also become part of the intervention itself, where participants can gain confidence and communication skills to speak up about their lives.

We trained ten girls in the mechanics and ethics of photography, and for five days in April 2013, they used donated digital cameras to document their days and the impact the program had on their lives. Their images are beautiful and revealing. Accompanied by the girls’ descriptions, the photos helped us see the aspects of the program that they most valued.

Our research findings support much of what Photovoice revealed. Among them: Young wives reported much more communication with their husbands. Girls’ management of household finances improved and couples experienced greater financial security. Girls’ knowledge about their sexual and reproductive health increased significantly. And they were using contraceptives at a higher rate than before they became involved in TESFA.

Using participatory research methods like Photovoice to complement traditional approaches can lead to a richer understanding of programs’ outcomes. For beneficiaries like the child brides we worked with in Ethiopia – and other often overlooked groups – it can provide an unprecedented opportunity to build confidence and skills. And, to really be seen.

Robin Hayes is an Independent research consultant and Social Justice photographer who was part of the TESFA research team at ICRW. Jeffrey Edmeades also contributed to this blog. Edmeades is a senior social demographer who directed ICRW’s evaluation of the TESFA project.

Next 16 Days Blog Post: A Courageous Journey
Previous 16 Days Blog Post: New Evidence on Child Marriage Prevention in Ethiopia

New Evidence on Child Marriage Prevention in Ethiopia

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. During this time IMPACT will highlight USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence.

Defined as a formal marriage or informal union before the age of 18 years, child marriage is a practice that increases a girl’s risk of school dropout, maternal mortality, short birth intervals, vulnerability to gender-based violence, and poor mental health, among other adverse outcomes. Estimates suggest that 1 in 3 girls in the developing world are married before the age of 18. In areas such as the Amhara Region of Ethiopia, the prevalence of child marriage (CM) is among the highest in the world, with 2009 estimates showing that 50% of girls were married before the age of 18.

To help address the needs of 50 million adolescents who are already married, USAID invested in programs through PEPFAR to reach more than 220,000 married adolescent girls in Amhara, Ethiopia with access to family planning, STI services, HIV services, financial literacy, and menstruation management.

To help combat child marriage before it happens, USAID invests in research to prevent CM in “hot spot” areas with high CM prevalence. In Amhara, Ethiopia, as well as hot spot regions of Tanzania and Burkina Faso, USAID is supporting an innovative five-arm study on the effectiveness and cost of community education, economic incentives, and educational support on delaying marriage among adolescent girls, compared to control communities not receiving interventions.

Join the conversation with @USAID on Twitter using #16days.

Join the conversation with @USAID on Twitter using #16days.

USAID promotes dissemination and use of new evidence on effective strategies for child marriage prevention. A 2013 study (PDF) published by Anastasia Gage, supported under the USAID-funded MEASURE Evaluation project, sheds new light on how exposure to behavior change communication (BCC) affects knowledge and attitudes on CM among parents and guardians in Amhara Region. Although parents and guardians often decide when and who a girl marries, little data exists on effective strategies to change CM attitudes and knowledge among these gatekeepers.

Results from Gage’s study show that almost all parents were exposed to CM prevention messages from 1-2 communication channels.  Social influence was important to parents. Parents who believed their communities disapproved of CM were more likely to believe that marriage before age 18 was too early and that their daughters had the right to choose their own partner. By addressing parental attitudes and perceptions, programs can change social norms around child marriage. Future BCC campaigns on CM prevention should address the role of social influence on parental behaviors and attitudes and reinforce the health, economic, and educational benefits of delayed marriage. Evaluations of BCC programs should include a comparison group, monitor interventions for coverage, and measure changes in behaviors and practices.

USAID continues to support data collection on CM. Since 1984, the Agency has funded more than 260 Demographic and Health (DHS) surveys, which allow for identification of areas with the highest prevalence of CM. USAID supports rigorous evaluations of conditional cash transfer programs to delay CM among girls in India and Bangladesh, countries that account for the largest number of child brides in the world.

Learn more about USAID’s policies to address CM in Ending Child Marriage and Meeting the Needs of Married Children: The USAID Vision for Action. This vision is part of a suite of interlinked gender policies including the U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to GBV Globally, the Gender Equality and Female Empowerment Policy, National Action Plan on Children in Adversity, Youth in Development Policy and National Action Plan on Women, Peace & Security.

The Power of a Grandmother’s Love

USAID is observing World AIDS Day this year by celebrating ten years of our HIV and AIDS work under PEPFAR.

As we approach World AIDS Day 2013, children affected by and living with HIV/AIDS must remain central to the global response.  As the largest funder of programs that mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS in the lives of children worldwide, PEPFAR would like to celebrate the courage and compassion of all the caregivers, the grandmothers, the mothers and fathers, the aunts and uncles and older siblings, who have stepped forward to care for children affected by the epidemic.

GoGo means Grandmother in most South African languages. Photo credit: Tash McCarroll/USAID

“GoGo” means Grandmother in most South African languages. Photo credit: Tash McCarroll/USAID

GoGo is an old woman with a young girl’s bright smile. She lives in a small, tin-roofed, two room house in Soweto, with eight of her grandchildren. When her first daughter died of HIV, she took in her three young children, the oldest of whom was named Precious. At the time, Precious was 14. She was a clever girl who always did well in school and loved learning. When her mother became sick, Precious was forced to drop out of school to take care of her younger siblings and mother. And when her mother died, Precious moved in with her GoGo, who had no income and no means to support Precious to continue her education. Just as Precious began to lose hope, Grace walked into their lives. Grace is a Child and Youth Care Worker (CYCW) with the PEPFAR- supported Isibindi project.

CYCWs are para-social workers that support orphaned and vulnerable children whose lives have been turned upside down by HIV/AIDS. Grace helped Precious return to school and supported all of GoGo’s grandchildren to be tested for HIV. When GoGo’s younger daughter died and she took in her three children as well, Grace helped ensure they were also tested as well. And when tests indicated that none of the children were HIV-positive, GoGo and Grace were relieved, but they knew that they would have to continue to protect themselves and support these children in order to maintain healthy lives. Thanks to help from Grace, GoGo was able to complete an application and gain access to a government grant to cover basic expenses.

Grace still supports the family and visits with them twice a week. She makes sure the children are attending school and doing well psychologically, and helps GoGo to meet their other needs. GoGo still has eight children in her care, but she does not seem burdened or discouraged. She looks to the future with hope. When complimented on the care that she provides to her grandchildren, GoGo responds, “Of course I do this work. They are my children. No one can hold them like I can.”

Learn more about USAID’s role as a leading implementer of PEPFAR programs for orphans and vulnerable children.

This story is part of an ongoing series of blogs from the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator in recognition of the 10th anniversary of PEPFAR. Previous blogs in the series can be found on the PEPFAR blog site. 

Follow @USAIDGH on Twitter through World AIDS Day, observed on December 2, for key facts, resources, and photos from our programs and partners and join the conversation using the hashtag #WAD2013.

Meeting the Needs of Children and Adolescents Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. The blog below highlights USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence and celebrates ten years of our HIV and AIDS work under PEPFAR in advance of World AIDS Day (December 1).

Ruth was doing “okay,” with the help of her HIV medication and the friends she had made in a local support group for people living with HIV. With a shy smile, Ruth told me that she was getting by, but she missed her two young daughters. Her nine-year-old, Sarah, had been raped a year before and was now at a recovery center with her sister, who stayed with her for company. “She still hasn’t spoken, but she is getting better,” Ruth said with a sad smile.

In Swaziland, just before sunset, a young girl tests out a new seesaw on a playground built by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation at the Mkhulamini Clinic. Photo credit: Jon Hrusa, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation

In Swaziland, just before sunset, a young girl tests out a new seesaw on a playground built by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation at the Mkhulamini Clinic. Photo credit: Jon Hrusa, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation

Like many single mothers, Ruth worked during the day doing laundry and chores for other families. A male neighbor took advantage of her daughter when she was home alone. The attack had been so brutal that her daughter had been in the hospital for over a month. With the help of friends, Ruth made sure the man was arrested and prosecuted. It had been hard. The time spent on the case had left little time to earn income. Ruth’s family was struggling, but people were helping. She had hope that things would get better, and that her daughter would recover.

Ruth’s story and her courage epitomize the struggle to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Treatment is a miracle, but the true test of our resolve to end AIDS lies in our commitment to end the inequities of gender, of rich and poor, of powerful and vulnerable.

Girls, often marginalized by age and social status, are at a particularly high risk. Globally, young women aged 15-24 are the most vulnerable to HIV and account for 22 percent (PDF) of all new HIV infections (twice as high as young men). Furthermore, an estimated 150 million girls have experienced some form of gender-based violence before age 18. But this is not just limited to girls. According to the World Report on Violence Against Children (PDF), an estimated 73 million boys globally have also experienced sexual violence before age 18. Such violence has severe consequences for their immediate and long-term health and well-being, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections such as HIV, reproductive and sexual health complications, alcohol and drug abuse, and psychosocial health issues. In addition, results from the PEPFAR Sexual Gender Based Violence Initiative showed that when sexual assault services were introduced to primary health centers, a large percentage of patients presenting for care were under 18, but services were not tailored to meet their unique needs.

USAID, as a key implementing agency of PEPFAR, has a strong commitment to addressing the unique needs and vulnerabilities of children and adolescents experiencing sexual violence, including addressing the gender-related factors that underlie such violence. The recently launched guide, Clinical Management of Children and Adolescents Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence: Technical Considerations for PEPFAR Programs, offers step-by-step technical advice for clinicians, social workers, pediatricians, child protection workers, HIV specialists and others on appropriate clinical care and management. These technical considerations are meant to serve as a starting point for national level adaptation and development of comprehensive, integrated services for children.

As we travel down the road to an AIDS-free generation, we hope that stories like that of Ruth’s daughter dwindle into extinction. In the meantime, for those children that are afflicted by such unspeakable sexual violence, we pledge to continue serving their unique needs and vulnerabilities.

Why the Arts and Youth Matter for LGBT Global Development

Last month, I had the opportunity to join Urooj Arshad of Advocates for Youth in a conversation following a performance of The Laramie Project, Moises Kaufman’s play about Matthew Shepard at the Ford’s Theatre in Washington, DC. As I watched characters like the Muslim Bangladeshi-American university student and a skeptical university student slowly learning about lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, I was reminded of the importance of the arts and youth in international development.

USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah dances with a Family Ayara Youth Foundation dancer in a trip to Bogota, Colombia in April 2013. Photo credit: USAID

USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah dances with a Family Ayara Youth Foundation dancer in a trip to Bogota, Colombia in April 2013. Photo credit: USAID

The power of images and storytelling moves people and societies. USAID has been at the forefront of using the arts as a tool for social change in countries where we work:

  • In Lebanon, USAID supported youth in photography, painting, writing, and drama as a way to express fear about “the other” and find a way to understand those different from themselves.

  • Most recently, in Colombia, the Canal Capital television network broadcast a one-hour documentary on LGBT issues and the diversity of families in Colombia. Local television networks throughout the country are re-broadcasting this documentary, contributing to increased awareness of LGBT families in Colombia. Promoting LGBT issues is a core part of USAID’s efforts to help civil society build a culture of human rights in Colombia.

USAID’s efforts to protect and promote the rights of LGBT persons in Colombia is not unique. We take hate crimes and the vulnerability of LGBT persons seriously by focusing on the resilience and power of LGBT persons as change agents.

These efforts are part of USAID’s overall focus on inclusive development. We believe that men, boys, girls and women, persons with disabilities and the LGBT community, internally displaced persons, indigenous peoples, ethnic and religious minorities, and youth, are an integral part of the development process. USAID’s suite of policies include the first ever Agency-wide Youth in Development Policy, as well as Gender Equality and Female Empowerment Policy (PDF), U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-Based Violence Globally (PDF), and U.S. Government Action Plan on Children in Adversity. Our Youth in Development policy highlights many of the challenges and opportunities facing youth as a specific population group and simultaneously emphasizes the fact that youth are not a homogeneous group.

Based on data in the U.S. and anecdotal evidence in my travels worldwide, we know that LGBT youth are at increased risk for being abandoned by their families and rejected, barred, or deterred from accessing schools, all of which undermine their ability to learn and develop the skills that are necessary for a productive life. In an online survey sponsored by Vietnam’s Center for Creative Initiatives in Health and Population showed that 77% of LGBT youth experienced verbal abuse and 44% experienced physical assault in school. 42% of these youth lost interest in school, 33% skipped school, and 6% abandoned school.

The Laramie Project and data on LGBT youth underscore the importance of ensuring marginalized youth have a voice and are able to engage in policy-making processes in their communities. Focusing on LGBT youth is critical to global development.

The data may be daunting; however, based on a track record ranging from the arts to inclusive development to human rights programming and our expertise on NGO organizational development, USAID is leading in addressing the challenge of integrating vulnerable populations, particularly youth and LGBT persons in our programming.

From the Field in Pakistan: Catch of a Lifetime

When the video team and I started out from Islamabad, Pakistan, early one morning, I didn’t know what, or whose, story awaited us. We were traveling to the remote outskirts of Jamshoro, a city on the banks of the Indus River (about 90 miles northeast of Karachi for a video shoot. It was during our interviews with community members that we met Imran Ali Mallah.

A world away from education, Imran once worked diligently as a fisherman, hauling up nets seven days a week to make ends meet. When we spoke with him, however, he was living a different kind of life.

After learning about a USAID-funded teachers’ education program, former fisherman Imran Ali Mallah decided to study to become a teacher. Photo credit:  USAID Teacher Education Project/EDC

After learning about a USAID-funded teachers’ education program, former fisherman Imran Ali Mallah decided to study to become a teacher. Photo credit: USAID Teacher Education Project/EDC

Weary of the unpredictability of the fishing trade and inspired by an advertisement in the local paper for a USAID initiative offering training, he decided to become a teacher.

“I grew up in poverty,” Imran told me. “I know the pain and suffering that comes along with it.”

Imran enrolled in the two-year ADE teacher training program and committed himself to his new endeavor. He now travels four hours every day from his home in Jamshoro to the Provincial Institute of Teacher Education in Nawabshah. Despite the hardship, he has maintained excellent grades, and will receive his associate’s degree in 2014.

Imran is optimistic about his future, passionate about teaching and financially more secure.  Instead of toiling each day on his boat, he is able to support himself and his studies by teaching children two hours a day. He hopes to help give his students the opportunity for a better future. “Changing children’s mindsets toward learning and success is very important for the citizens of our country,” said Imran. “It enables personal growth. I hope to pass on this beacon of knowledge.”

Thanks to the USAID-funded Associate’s Degree in Education (ADE) program, Imran Ali Mallah is changing his life—and the lives of his students—as he pursues his ambition of becoming a teacher. Photo credit: USAID Teacher Education Project/ EDC

Thanks to the USAID-funded Associate’s Degree in Education (ADE) program, Imran Ali Mallah is changing his life—and the lives of his students—as he pursues his ambition of becoming a teacher. Photo credit: USAID Teacher Education Project/ EDC

Imran credits the USAID education program with his success, “The ADE program has been a source of inspiration. It enabled me to switch my profession from fishing to teaching. With its advanced teaching methods, it has brought classrooms to life, which has made both teachers and students open to change.”

More than 2,600 teacher trainees like Imran are enrolled in the USAID-funded, Government of Pakistan-accredited, two-year ADE program and four-year Bachelors of Education. ADE is one of several USAID projects helping millions of Pakistanis unlock their full potential. In addition to ADE, USAID has launched degree programs in education at 90 teacher colleges and universities, and is building new applied research centers at Pakistani universities that focus on energy, water and agriculture. More than 10,600 low-income students attend college in Pakistan with USAID-funded scholarships.

Learn more about USAID’s work in Pakistan.

USAID in the News

Devex featured a piece about USAID’s new approach to tackling urban policy through the use of crowdsourcing. A public comment period will be made available on November 7 as a part of the Sustainable Service Delivery in an Increasingly Urbanized World program. By soliciting public opinion, USAID hopes to find new ways to encourage the formation of local solutions that will allow the agency to partner with city governments and community groups to build on expertise and bolster development efforts.

The Times of India reported on a USAID grant that was awarded to three Indian companies to help them share successful low-cost agricultural innovations with African countries. The grants come through the USAID India-Africa Agriculture Innovations Bridge Program, which seeks to improve food security, nutrition, and long-term sustainability by sharing Indian innovations with farmers in Africa who will benefit from them.

Administrator at at The George Washington University’s Feeding the Planet Summit, where he announced the Feed the Future Innovation Labs. Photo credit: Joslin Isaacson, HarvestPlus

Administrator at at The George Washington University’s Feeding the Planet Summit, where he announced the Feed the Future Innovation Labs. Photo credit: Joslin Isaacson, HarvestPlus

AllAfrica covered USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah’s announcement of 10 new Feed the Future Innovation Labs that will partner with American universities to tackle the world’s most challenging agricultural research problems. A part of the U.S. Government’s global hunger and food security initiative, these labs will work to address the challenges of climate change in agriculture and research ways to produce food in an environmentally sensitive manner to ensure global access to nutritious and safe foods.

Zawya reported on a joint effort between USAID and the Caterpillar Foundation, which seeks to provide intensive technical training to youth in Jordan. The program equips trainees with the skills to fill technician-level positions in key industrial sectors of the Jordanian economy. Rana Al Turk, the International Youth Foundation (IYF) Jordan Country Director says that the program aims to fill job positions, “while providing youth with a comprehensive employability approach that includes the technical training and soft skills they need to enhance their employment prospects and lead successful lives.”

Citizen News featured a story on a USAID-funded program that provides students in Kenya with laptops to enhance their educational experience. According to Jaribu Primary School headmaster Mohamed Gedi, the project has triggered a spike in the performance of the 300 hundred students that benefit from the laptops.

The Express Tribune reported on USAID’s hand over of a state-of-the-art Expanded Program on Immunization Coordination and Planning Resource Center to the Ministry of National Health Services, Regulation, and Coordination in Pakistan. The center is equipped with technology and software that will allow the government to track vaccine supplies throughout the country. USAID Health Office Director Jonathan Ross, who inaugurated the center, reaffirmed the U.S. Government’s commitment to improving health indicators in Pakistan through continued health development assistance.

What Does It Take to Get Contraceptives to Clients in Rural Nigeria?

Many of our clients learn about family planning from routine visits to rural health facilities. The health workers in this facility help patients and their families choose appropriate contraception methods and teach new clients how to use these methods correctly. The same health workers who are responsible for treating patients are often also responsible for monitoring the supply of contraception methods in the facility. When torn between caring for a waiting room full of patients and filling out paperwork to order new supplies, health workers discovered that they were stocking out of essential contraception supplies. This meant that they had to turn away patients—many of whom had traveled considerable distances to get these family planning services. The discouraged clients lost confidence in the health system and were less inclined to seek out family planning services if products they wanted were not available when they needed them.

DDIC truck delivering commodities at a rural health facility in Nigeria. Photo credit: USAID | DELIVER PROJECT

DDIC truck delivering commodities at a rural health facility in Nigeria. Photo credit: USAID | DELIVER PROJECT

To rectify the stock-out situation and improve access and availability to family planning commodities in Nigeria, the USAID|DELIVER PROJECT is piloting a system called Direct Delivery and Information Capture (DDIC) in Ebonyi and Bauchi states. Through DDIC, the project currently delivers 24 public health commodities, including contraceptives, antimalarial medications, and maternal, newborn and child health products to 365 selected service delivery points in the selected states.

The DDIC system utilizes a vendor-managed inventory model, whereby products are delivered from state warehouses directly to the health facilities on trucks that serve as mobile warehouses. The trucks arrive, carrying predetermined quantities of health commodities, based on the facilities’ past consumption data. By investing in reliable transportation, DDIC ensures that truck drivers and team leaders are available to deliver commodities to health facilities according to an established delivery schedule. A team leader traveling with the truck inspects the facilities’ storage space, counts stock-on-hand for the different health commodities, and enters this inventory data into a specifically-designed inventory management database. The database calculates the quantity of products to be issued to the facility to bring the quantity of stock of contraceptives back to the pre-determined levels. Data obtained from each facility are synchronized with a sister software to generate logistics reports that help monitor system performance and prepare for the next resupply period.

Commodities are supplied to the health facilities every two months. After just four consecutive supply trips, the availability of commodities at participating facilities has drastically improved. Stock-out rates of contraceptives and other common health products have been reduced from above 70% before DDIC was implemented to below 5%. Additionally, 100% of the targeted health facilities have received a bi-monthly visit with the team leader. Furthermore, essential logistics data are now readily available for public health supply chain experts to use in future decision making about future health commodity needs.

Though still in the pilot phase, DDIC has improved the availability of contraceptives and other commodities in rural health facilities in supported states. It has also relieved many of the health facility staff of paperwork duties, so they can focus more on providing better quality care to patients. Consequently, clients’ confidence in the health facility’s ability to provide health services is increasing.

So, what does it take to get contraceptives to clients in rural Nigeria?

Through DDIC, USAID is improving availability of contraceptives at rural health facilities on a regular bimonthly delivery schedule, thereby increasing families’ patronage and uptake of family planning services. DDIC has come to the rescue ensuring commodities availability at facilities and data for planning in Nigeria!

Learn more about how USAID is working towards ensuring safe motherhood and healthy families around the world.

Learn more about our Mission of the Month: USAID Nigeria. Follow @USAID for ongoing updates in the region and join the conversation with the hashtag #MissionofMonth!

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