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Standing with Liberia to Reverse Ebola’s ‘Spillover’ Effects

 With funding and support from USAID construction crews work quickly to build a new Ebola Treatment Unit in Monrovia in front of the former Ministry of Defence Building. / Morgana Wingard

With funding and support from USAID construction crews work quickly to build a new Ebola Treatment Unit in Monrovia in front of the former Ministry of Defence Building. / Morgana Wingard

The Ebola Virus Disease, and the pressing need for rapid containment over the next 3 to 9 months, presents the global community with a formidable challenge. More than 7,000 cases have already been confirmed in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone (the three core countries of the epidemic), and more than 3,300 people have already died. The epidemic is strengthening, but so too is the international response.

Ebola threatens not only lives, but livelihoods. The main driver of economic impacts is not the loss of labor to sickness and death, or even the major diversion of resources into health care, but rather the much broader spillover effects from peoples’ fear of contagion.

Isolation of infected persons is critical to controlling transmission, and wider restrictions including land border closings and partial community quarantines can interrupt economic activity on a temporary basis. But in an atmosphere of uncertainty about personal and business risks, activity can decline across the entire economy. Self-protective aversion behavior shuts down businesses, disrupts transportation and agriculture, and sidelines employment-creating investment plans – all of which drives down peoples’ livelihoods by undermining a country’s production and trade.

Liberia, where the outbreak is worst, has been rebuilding its economy since emerging from a long civil war in 2003. While economic growth has been strong in recent years, the country remains one of the poorest in Africa, with a per capita income of only $440 dollars and nearly 60 percent of the population below the poverty line. Liberia remains both institutionally weak and aid dependent, so a swift international policy reaction to this epidemic is crucial.

Food prices have recently begun to rise sharply in urban areas in Liberia, reflecting slowdowns in container shipping and uncertainty about future supplies. Regional trade has been reduced by land border closings. Internal transport has slowed down, reflecting official and unofficial restrictions on movement and higher fuel costs. The expatriate economy – with its incomes and expertise – has thinned out.  Some urban enterprises are shedding workers as many government contracts are being cut back, or put on hold.

The World Bank’s latest estimate of economic losses for 2014, in the three core countries, is $359 million. Under a rapid containment scenario, losses in 2015 are projected to be roughly $100 million, with the bulk of these in Liberia where per-capita incomes are not expected to begin rising again until 2016. Left unchecked, however, this epidemic could grow exponentially and drive up both human and financial costs by as much as 8 to 10 fold.  So the international community needs to act quickly and decisively, along a number of fronts.

Simply put, an Ebola epidemic that is not effectively contained and mitigated could reverse years of development progress for the affected countries, with harsh negative impacts on some of the world’s most vulnerable communities. Failure to contain would also increase the risk of outbreaks in neighboring countries, driving economic losses into the tens of billions of dollars.

 Washing is a vital part of the operation of the Ebola Treatment Unit at Island Clinic in Monrovia. All scrubs worn under PPEs and shoes must be washed thoroughly in chlorine water and then with soap. / Morgana Wingard

Washing is a vital part of the operation of the Ebola Treatment Unit at Island Clinic in Monrovia. All scrubs worn under PPEs and shoes must be washed thoroughly in chlorine water and then with soap. / Morgana Wingard

This epidemic calls for concerted international response including health workers, new treatment facilities, and medical supplies to the health sectors of the core countries, food security assistance to stressed and especially isolated and quarantined areas, and preparedness training for health systems in neighboring countries.

The United States, along with our international partners, is stepping up to this challenge. With Liberian clinics overwhelmed with new patients, we are providing 2,000 new beds, 130,000 sets of personal protective equipment, and 50,000 hygiene kits, along with plans to rapidly construct new health clinics.  To prevent further infections within Liberia, the USG and its partners will also provide 400,000 protection kits to reduce transmission in community settings.

To help offset declining government revenues and skyrocketing health costs, we are providing base salary support for civil servants in Liberia’s Ministry of Health, and working closely with the World Food Program to provide emergency food supplies to 1.3 million people across the region, including Ebola patients and communities under quarantine.

We’re also working closely with President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf to intensify our response across a broad range of areas, including supporting the country’s health system so that the focus on Ebola does not come at the expense of providing care to pregnant mothers or newborn infants.

Additionally, we’re working with the Government of Liberia and partners to mitigate the economic impacts of the crisis outside of the health system. This includes the crucial area of public messaging about the safe resumption of normal economic activities.

We’ve seen outstanding teamwork across our Agency, the U.S. Government, and our Disaster Assistance Response Team on the ground in Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone—but we cannot win this fight alone.

We need qualified health care workers—nurses, doctors, and physician assistants—who could be a part of this historic response. We’re encouraging them to register at www.usaid.gov/ebola, and we’ll put them in touch with a network of organizations that are standing by to train volunteers. We’re also identifying care and evacuation procedures to support these professionals in their heroic humanitarian work.
With the same creativity and rigorous efficiency that we have applied to previous disasters, we can—and will—stop this epidemic. By working together with our partners from government, business, civil society, and the military, we can lay the groundwork for a brighter future in vulnerable communities grappling with Ebola’s devastation.

Stephen O’Connell

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Stephen O’Connell is USAID’s Chief Economist. He guides the Agency on economics-based decision making and provides expert advice to Agency leadership and staff in the field of economic growth.

Andrew Hill: “There’s no standard blueprint for an Ebola treatment unit.”

Morgana Wingard This is the second blog in our Profiles in Courage series in which we’ve teamed up with photojournalist Morgana Wingard, who is on the ground with USAID staff in Liberia documenting the fight on Ebola. This series will record the experiences of our Disaster Assistance Response Team staff on the front lines of the Ebola response – from the security officers, to public health experts, to information specialists – and offer their reflections on this historic health crisis.
Andrew Hill

Andrew Hill
U.S. Army Civil Engineer

The buzzwords here in Monrovia are “unprecedented” and “exponential.” Everything about the Ebola epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented as it spreads exponentially.

U.S. Army civil engineer Andrew Hill is part of the USAID-led Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) tasked with implementing an unprecedented response to the Ebola crisis.

An essential part of that response is constructing and staffing new treatment facilities that can isolate and care for the growing number of people infected with the virus.

On the ground in Liberia, one of the first tasks by Andrew and the U.S. military engineers was to conceptualize and design an ETU. Working hand-in-hand with members of the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL), they consulted the experts with a gold standard ETU model: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Building off of their expertise, they tailored the designs to create Department of Defense and AFL-specific versions, which could be built and implemented with their resources.

The plans started with a hand-drawn sketch that Andrew created while driving in a car on his way to various sites. That sketch formed the basis for what would become a full concept and material list needed to begin ETU construction.

Photo of Andrew Hill sketching

Photo of Andrew Hill sketching

The U.S. Army Africa engineers, led by Lieutenant Colonel Scott Sendmeyer, pooled their collective professional engineering knowledge and tools in order to continue developing and finalizing the design, and to determine the remaining requirements needed for implementation.

The first site to use the design is scheduled to begin construction imminently — and this model will be replicated and constructed across Liberia by a team of 150 AFL engineers to help save lives and stop the spread of Ebola.

(All photos by Morgana Wingard)

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Morgana Wingard is a photojournalist documenting the many facets of the Ebola crisis in Liberia. All this week she will be guest posting from USAID’s instagram

The Extreme Poor Shouldn’t Have to Make Extreme Choices

People living in extreme poverty too often experience the denial of basic human dignity—forced to make trade-offs of what is possible on an income that is literally pocket change for people in the developed world. Food comes at the expense of medicine, clothing at the expense of a roof over one’s head, water at the expense of education. Every trade-off is a potential disaster for the extreme poor; it is an insult to every person’s basic humanity.

The number of people classified as extremely poor (living on less than $1.25/day) has been reduced by 700 million over the last 20 years. Given this progress, USAID and other development partners believe that extreme poverty can continue to be reduced and be ultimately eliminated by 2030. Some unit of measure must be used, of course (agreed to be $1.25 per day), but using a precise number for income is but a crude indication of the dividing line between having to make heartbreaking choices and not.

Some wonder if it is actually viable to create a world free from extreme poverty. What has happened over the past 25 years provides the best indication of what is possible. The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving extreme poverty was met five years ahead of schedule, in 2010. The mortality rate of children under 5 years of age has dropped by half since 1990. And both the maternal mortality rate and hunger rate nearly halved in the same period of time.

To be sure, there is a tremendous amount of work to be done—over 1 billion people still live in extreme poverty—but this video speaks to USAID’s resolve to live up to its mission statement and make 2030 truly historic.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Christina Droggitis is a Policy Analyst in the Bureau for Policy, Planning and Learning.

Facing Death, Six Days a Week

Morgana Wingard This is the third blog in our Daily Dispatches series in which we’ve teamed up with photojournalist Morgana Wingard, who is on the ground with USAID staff in Liberia documenting the fight on Ebola. Her photo series and blogs from the team will offer unique angles into the many facets of the Ebola story – from life inside a treatment center, to profiles of the health care workers battling Ebola from the front lines, to the many ways the epidemic is impacting the health, economy and future of the nation.

What do you say to a mother who just lost her child? To a neighbor who just lost her best friend? How do you comfort them before you carry away the body of their loved one in a black bag in the back of a dark green pick-up truck? Varbah Dolley faces these scenarios six days a week. Varbah is tough – like most Liberian women who have lived through two civil wars. She is now fighting another a war, against an enemy she can’t see.

Varbah is a member of a Liberian Red Cross burial team. Funding from USAID and support from the U.S.-based NGO Global Communities is providing burial-team support activities in all 15 counties of Liberia, as well as engaging with communities to share information on proper hygiene practices and preventing transmission through workshops, community meetings, and radio campaigns.

From the moment they start showing symptoms, someone who has contracted the Ebola virus is highly contagious. The virus is spread through direct contact with bodily fluids including vomit, diarrhea, blood, and saliva. After the person dies, the body is even more contagious.

In Liberia, rituals to prepare bodies for burial are contributing to the rapid spread of the virus. The dead body is typically washed and dressed by multiple people before being carried to a grave — a ripe situation for the virus to spread. Graves are also important landmarks for Liberians. Decoration Day, a government holiday, is dedicated to visiting and decorating family graves. It’s where they can speak with their ancestors and commune with them. As the burial team prepared to take one body, I heard a woman wail: “I will have nothing to decorate on Decoration Day.”

To stop the spread of Ebola, burial teams have been mobilized across Liberia to provide safe disposal of contagious bodies, which often includes cremation. With the epidemic on the rise, every dead body is now considered an Ebola body. Varbah’s team leaves central Monrovia every morning to respond to reports of deaths. These calls often lead them to communities deep in rural Liberia. Last week, we drove for more than two hours over rough dirt terrain to reach Arthington – which also happens to be the birthplace of former warlord Charles Taylor.

On Sept. 26, 2014, Varbah, a member of  Liberia Red Cross and Global Communities burial team, listens to the mother of  Phelica Anthony, 6, explain the events leading up to her daughter’s recent death. Although  Phelica was taken to several hospitals, the cause of her death was not determined, and now her father is exhibiting symptoms of Ebola.

On September 26, 2014, Varbah, a member of the Liberian Red Cross and Global Communities burial team, listens to the mother of  Phelica Anthony, 6, explain the events leading up to her daughter’s recent death. Although Phelica was taken to several hospitals, the cause of her death was not determined, and now her father is exhibiting symptoms of Ebola.


Monrovia, Liberia - September 26, 2014: Burial team members take notes for their end-of-day report as  Phelica’s mother describes the events leading up to her 6-year-old daughter's death.

Burial team members take notes for their end-of-day report as Phelica’s mother describes the events leading up to her 6-year-old daughter’s death.


Varbah climbs out of the mud-splattered jeep and calmly walks over to a crowd with her notebook and pen. She jots down as much information as possible about each patient and their family for the report she submits every evening. “I know what you people are going through. But take courage,” she counsels the family of 6-year-old Phelica as they describe the events leading up to her untimely death. Phelica became inexplicably sick while playing outside. Her mother carried her to multiple hospitals for treatment. After spending a couple days at one hospital where they ran several lab tests, the doctor said she would not survive and Phelica died on the way home. Her father, who had cared for her, later began exhibiting symptoms of Ebola. A health team transported him to an Ebola treatment unit the day before we arrived.

Like many in West Africa, when it comes to the current public health crisis, Phelica’s family is suspicious.“You don’t know what killed the person because they are hiding the truth from us,” Varbah tells me later in the car.

Melvin Payoh, the assistant team leader of the burial team, suits up like an astronaut in the middle of the hot, rural village as onlookers gather and stare. A few minutes after disappearing past the first row of earth-walled homes, the team returns carrying a black bag. Everything about this Ebola outbreak feels unreal until men in white spacesuits walk through a town with a body-filled bag. A mother wails, “My baby, O. My baby, O.” Then it is painfully real. Numbers have names. Tears flow. Relatives fall on the ground. Hands flail. Melvin and his team lay Phelica’s little body in the back of a dark green pick-up truck.

I think Varbah and Melvin have the hardest job fighting this Ebola outbreak. They face death six days a week in order to save more lives. When I asked Varbah why she applied for the position she replied, “I do this for my country.”

"The body is over there," says Arthington's town chief pointing past the mother of Phelica, a 6-year-old girl that had recently died on Sept. 26, 2014.

“The body is over there,” says Arthington’s town chief pointing past the mother of Phelica, a 6-year-old girl that had recently died on September 26, 2014.


Melvin, a member of a burial team, suits up to remove the body of 6-year-old Phelica Anthony as onlookers from Arthington town film with a cell phone.

Melvin, a member of a burial team, suits up to remove the body of 6-year-old Phelica Anthony as onlookers from Arthington town film with a cell phone.


Varbah helps Melvin put on his personal protective equipment and ensures there are no gaps from the outside world to his skin before he goes in to pick-up the body of 6-year-old Phelica .

Varbah helps Melvin put on his personal protective equipment and ensures there are no gaps from the outside world to his skin before he goes in to pick-up the Phelica’s body.


The mother of Phelica Anthony, 6, says goodbye to her daughter as a burial team takes her body away. USAID is supporting the safe burial teams and Agency partners are working with communities to share information on proper hygiene practices and preventing transmission through workshops, community meetings, and radio campaigns.

The mother of Phelica Anthony, 6, says goodbye to her daughter as a burial team takes her body away. USAID is supporting the safe burial teams and Agency partners are working with communities to share information on proper hygiene practices and preventing transmission through workshops, community meetings, and radio campaigns.


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Melvin, a member of the Liberian Red Cross and Global Communities burial team removes the body of Phelica Anthony from her family home in Arthington.


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Phelica’s mother sings, “My baby O. My baby O” as the burial team removes her body.

Family, friends, and neighbors grieve as the body of Phelica is removed from their family home.

Family, friends, and neighbors grieve as the Phelica’s body is removed from their family home.


Family, friends, and neighbors grieve as the body of Phelica is removed from their family home.

Melvin lays the body of 6-year-old Phelica in the back of a pickup truck. They are under a mandate by the Government of Liberia to take all bodies they collect in Montserrado County to the crematorium.


(All photos by Morgana Wingard)

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Morgana Wingard is a photojournalist documenting the many facets of the Ebola crisis in Liberia. All this week she will be guest posting from USAID’s instagram

United with Ukraine: Hope, Progress, and the Challenging Road Ahead

In mid-September, I had the opportunity to travel to Ukraine to see firsthand the work that USAID is doing to support critical recovery and reform efforts. Not only did I return with a better understanding and appreciation of the programming we are implementing, but also was impressed by the strength and resilience of the Ukrainian people facing the challenging road ahead.

During my trip, I had the opportunity to travel to Dnipropetrovsk – only a couple of hundred miles from the conflict zone in the East where thousands of Ukrainians were driven from their homes by the battle between Ukrainian forces and Russia-supported separatists.

At a visit to a Dnipropetrovsk center for internally displaced persons (IDPs), organized and run by volunteers, I was awestruck by the outpouring of support and the capacity of Ukrainians from all walks of life to contribute and assist their countrymen.

This center is providing food, clothing and temporary shelter to over 21,000 people pouring into Dnipropetrovsk from the neighboring Donetsk and Luhansk regions. I was able to meet Maria and her young daughter who were forced to leave their home in Horlivka, close to Donetsk and have been in  Dnipropetrovsk for a few weeks. While she told me that being displaced is difficult, she was very impressed with the reception provided in Dnipropetrovsk. Maria spends her days volunteering at the center and helping new arrivals.

USAID Assistant Administrator for Europe and Eurasia Paige Alexander meets Lydia at the Dnipropetrovsk IDP Center.

USAID Assistant Administrator for Europe and Eurasia Paige Alexander meets Lydia at the Dnipropetrovsk IDP Center. Lydia was forced to leave her home but hopes to return home soon. She is grateful for the support provided by Dopomoha Dnipra and the IDP Center. / Roman Woronowycz, USAID

In early June, the center received around 100 people per day. Now, with more than 300 new arrivals per day, the center needs support.The United States Government, in coordination with the government of Ukraine, has responded to the need to help the roughly 271,000 people displaced by this conflict. This center, and others like it, will receive bedroom furniture and kitchen appliances for new arrivals with nowhere else to go. USAID is also developing plans to refurbish two floors of the center to shelter an additional 200 people.

USAID Assistant Administrator for Europe and Eurasia Paige Alexander and Head of Dopomoha Dnipra Foundation Vladislav Makarov sign a Memorandum of Understanding by which USAID will provide funds to assist an additional 200 internally displaced persons

USAID Assistant Administrator for Europe and Eurasia Paige Alexander and Head of Dopomoha Dnipra Foundation Vladislav Makarov sign a Memorandum of Understanding by which USAID will provide funds to assist an additional 200 internally displaced persons. / Roman Woronowycz, USAID

During Ukraine’s Maidan movement, thousands took a stand against corruption and government abuse to demand a free and democratic Ukraine. Throughout my trip, it became evident that the Ukrainian people are eager to contribute to their new government’s efforts. At one meeting, I entered a room packed with dozens of civil society representatives, many of whom we support to build their organizations’ capacity to advocate for and oversee reform efforts in decentralization, transparency, and health. Not only is their passion and dedication working to hold the government accountable, but many are also working to improve the humanitarian situation in the East by helping the government care for IDPs and even feeding and clothing soldiers. They are truly continuing to fight for the dignity that started on the Maidan and are one of the main reasons I’m hopeful about Ukraine’s future.

Verkhovna Rada Commissioner for Human Rights Valeria Lutkovska (left) and USAID Assistant Administrator for Europe and Eurasia Paige Alexander attend the launch of a USAID human rights project in Kyiv

Verkhovna Rada Commissioner for Human Rights Valeria Lutkovska (left) and USAID Assistant Administrator for Europe and Eurasia Paige Alexander attend the launch of a USAID human rights project in Kyiv. / Roman Woronowycz, USAID

Although the Government was not able to pass an anti-corruption bill on September 16th, key officials remain committed to paving the way for a new Ukraine. I had the honor to meet with newly elected Kyiv Mayor Vitaliy Klychko – some of you might remember Mr. Klychko, who for years reigned as heavyweight boxing champion of the world before entering the Ukrainian political ring. Mr. Klychko is pushing for major reforms in this city of 4 million to address waste and corruption. USAID is redoubling its efforts to partner with the City on its anti-corruption agenda, especially on e-governance, where USAID has recently hired an advisor to assist the city, the Presidential Administration, and the Ministry of Regional Development.

Looking forward, the U.S. Government remains committed to supporting Ukraine in both the short and long term as its leaders make the difficult sacrifices required to build the stable, democratic, and prosperous country its people deserve.

During President Poroshenko’s visit on September 18th, President Obama announced a new package of assistance totaling $53 million and has requested an additional $45 million from Congress in the next fiscal year to support Ukraine. The U.S. Government has provided $291 million in critical assistance this year as well as a $1 billion loan guarantee in May.

USAID, as part of a U.S. Government interagency team, is working closely with local partners and international donors to deliver immediate support to meet Ukraine’s most urgent areas of need. Together, we can help get relief to IDPs and provide humanitarian assistance to the conflict areas in eastern Ukraine.

USAID is making every effort to help Ukraine prepare for the challenges presented by the coming winter, replacing damaged windows to make homes habitable in the cold, and working with the electrical system managers to reduce the dangers of black-outs because of the fuel shortage. We are gearing up to assist in next month’s parliamentary elections to help ensure that the voices of all Ukrainians are heard and represented.

While these pressing needs are being addressed, USAID will continue to help Ukraine make important reforms that are necessary to end corruption, decentralize power, and reform its constitution.

In the longer term, USAID continues to work with the Ukrainian Government to support a prosperous Ukraine, with a stable economy, more productive farms, and greater energy efficiency.

In recent months Ukraine has made great strides in many areas. The Ukrainian Parliament unanimously passed the Association Agreement with the European Union, committing Ukraine to economic, judicial and financial reforms in line with European Union policies and legislation. Ukraine has fulfilled several steps of the Minsk ceasefire agreements necessary to stop the loss of life in Eastern Ukraine. A free and fair presidential election was held in May and the country now prepares for historic parliamentary elections.

Despite these achievements, serious challenges remain.

Even while fighting to protect the country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity and responding to the pressing needs of its citizens in the short-term, the Ukrainian government cannot forget the message of the Maidan and must follow through on its commitments to fighting corruption, improve the rule of law, and build the transparency and accountability that they promised.

Ukraine is at a critical juncture and if history is any indicator, there is a limited window of time for the Ukrainian Government to make good on these commitments. Only through the passing and implementation of challenging reforms, will Ukraine be successful in the long road ahead. The United States, including USAID, look forward to remaining a strong and committed partner in this journey.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Paige Alexander is USAID Assistant Administrator for Europe and Eurasia

Diaspora Businesses Find Success in Africa and Beyond

Want to build a global business? Start it in Africa.

The African Diaspora Marketplace (ADM) encourages promising diaspora entrepreneurs to do just that.

The partnership between USAID’s Global Development LabWestern Union, and Western Union Foundation provides seed funding, expertise, and networking opportunities for a talented group of entrepreneurs to create new opportunities in and outside the continent.

We  recently caught up with a few of ADM’s entrepreneurs to discuss their progress, and what they like most about doing business in Africa.

U.S. based tech company, Sproxil created an efficient way to verify the authenticity of medicine and other  products for consumers in Africa and Asia.

U.S. based tech company, Sproxil created an efficient way to verify the authenticity of medicine and other products for consumers in Africa and Asia. / Sproxil

Protecting Consumers from Fake Drugs
Tech start-up and ADM grantee, Sproxil developed an anti-counterfeiting service for a range of products, including pharmaceuticals drugs. The firm’s Ghanaian founder first pioneered the SMS-based verification service in Nigeria and quickly scaled it to additional markets. In 2013, Fast Company magazine ranked Sproxil as seventh amongst the year’s 50 most innovative businesses along with Google and Nike.

“[ADM] was fundamental in accelerating our growth, enabling Sproxil to scale-up faster than we would have otherwise,” says Alden Zecha, Sproxil Chief Financial Officer and Strategist.

“Consumers, governments, and businesses are very receptive to technological innovations that enhance quality of life. Consequently, more startups and investments are focusing on countries across Africa,” said Zecha about the region’s tech sectors.

Today, Sproxil’s mobile phone based service has helped American, African, and Asian consumers verify the authenticity of more than 11 million medicines and other products.

Grown in Ghana, Ashanti Pineapples were able to sell their certified organic produce in Whole Foods Market grocery stores thanks in part to the ADM partnership.

Grown in Ghana, Ashanti Pineapples were able to sell their certified organic produce in Whole Foods Market grocery stores thanks in part to the ADM partnership. / Sardis Enterprises International

Going Organic Reaps Sweet Success
Sardis Enterprises International and its Ghanaian partners, grow organic fruits for export. By producing and selling organic fruits, Sardis is reaching higher-value markets. In January, its Ashanti brand pineapples began selling in Whole Foods grocery stores in the southeast United States.

With support from the ADM, farming cooperatives in Ghana that supply Sardis were able to become certified to sell organic produce in the U.S. and E.U. “That venue [ADM] was very good for a young entrepreneur that needs a platform to get exposure and assistance to expand,” says Michael Griffin, CEO of Sardis.

Griffin sees expanding opportunities for growing small businesses on the continent. “[Africa] gives the small guy a shot…the atmosphere is conducive for a smart entrepreneur to succeed.”

The company is now working on expanding its partnership with Whole Foods across America’s east coast.

Chinwe Ohajuruka, an American educated architect and business women is creating a model for green and affordable housing units in Nigeria.

Chinwe Ohajuruka, an American educated architect and business women is creating a model for green and affordable housing units in Nigeria. / CDS

Making Affordable Green Housing a Reality
In Nigeria, there is a need for more than 17 million houses. The nation also faces major challenges with reliable power, and access to clean water. Enter Comprehensive Design Services (CDS), a Diaspora founded and woman-owned business. CDS has designed and built a set of prototype housing units that provides dependable renewable energy and clean water for Nigerians of average incomes.

“The ADM grant provided much needed start-up financing,” said Chinwe Ohajuruka, head of CDC and a Nigerian-American Architect. ‘The partnership has increased [our] visibility, as we have been invited to South Africa, Japan, and even the White House to speak about our innovative and sustainable design solutions to the housing, renewable energy, clean water, and sanitation crisis.”

A resident of Columbus, Ohio, Ohajuruka says the ADM allows her to stay connected with the continent in a meaningful way.

Her ambitious goal is to eventually build 100 green and affordable residential buildings in each of the 774 local municipalities across Nigeria.

Thanks to the success of CDS, Sproxil, Sardis and other diaspora businesses supported by the ADM, it has been nominated as a finalist for the P3 Impact Awards.  The award showcases outstanding public-private partnership for their innovations and results.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Romi Bhatia is a Senior Advisor in the U.S. Global Development Lab (@romib15)
Jeffrey Jackson is a Senior Advisor in USAID’s Bureau for Africa (@USAIDAfrica)

A Grand Challenge to Help Health Care Workers Fight Ebola

Health care workers put on Personal protective equipment (PPE) before going into the hot zone at Island Clinic in Monrovia, Liberia on Sept 22 2014. / Morgana Wingard, USAID

Health care workers put on personal protective equipment (PPE) before going into the hot zone at Island Clinic in Monrovia, Liberia on Sept. 22 2014. / Morgana Wingard, USAID

Today, West Africa faces the largest Ebola epidemic in history. Markets are empty. Schools are closed. Friends greet each other from a distance. As President Obama said yesterday at the United Nations:

“Ebola is a horrific disease. It’s wiping out entire families. It has turned simple acts of love and comfort and kindness — like holding a sick friend’s hand, or embracing a dying child — into potentially fatal acts. If ever there were a public health emergency deserving an urgent, strong and coordinated international response, this is it.”

From Guinea to Liberia to Sierra Leone, the alarm has been sounded, and United States is mobilizing a global response. We know how to stop this epidemic, but it will take ingenuity, speed, and cooperation. That is why President Obama announced a new Grand Challenge for Development to generate pioneering solutions that help health care workers provide better care in the midst of the epidemic.

“I’m pleased to announce a new effort to help health workers respond to diseases like Ebola. As many of you know firsthand, the protective gear that health workers wear can get incredibly hot, especially in humid environments. So today, we’re issuing a challenge to the inventors and entrepreneurs and businesses of the world to design better protective solutions for our health workers… And our goal is to get them to the field in a matter of months, to help the people working in West Africa right now.  We can do this.”

Every day, courageous men and women are performing critical tasks that save lives and prevent the spread of the virus. Personal protective equipment (PPE)—the suits, masks and gloves the health care worker wears—is their primary protection, but it is also the greatest source of stress. In these hot and uncomfortable suits, health workers must administer to the patients and remove contaminated materials.

Health workers in personal protective equipment (PPE) wait to enter the hot zone at Island Clinic in Monrovia, Liberia on Sept 22. 2014. PPE is their primary protection, but it is also the greatest source of stress. / Morgana Wingard, USAID

Health workers in personal protective equipment (PPE) wait to enter the hot zone at Island Clinic in Monrovia, Liberia on Sept 22. 2014. PPE is their primary protection, but it is also the greatest source of stress. / Morgana Wingard, USAID

Announced at the Global Health Security Summit in Washington, D.C., this Grand Challenge for Development will unite the global community in the quest for ingenious ideas that deliver practical and cost-effective innovations in a matter of months, not years.

We need new ideas to help ensure that treatment sites, communal transport units, and burial sites do not become infection sources. We need new solutions that strengthen the safety and increase the comfort of the suits, from improving fabric design to measuring a health worker’s temperature and heart rate.

We need new ways to simplify clinical processes, including point-of-care diagnostics. And we need new tools that continue to create a safer clinical environment, including improving infection control and waste disposal. Taken together, these innovations will enable health workers to provide better care for those who are suffering.

Together with our international partners, we will translate the expertise and ingenuity of scientists, innovators, engineers, and students from across the globe into real solutions. With your bold thinking and engagement, we can give health workers the tools they need to win this fight.

To get involved, please visit: http://www.usaid.gov/grandchallenges/ebola

 

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. Rajiv Shah is USAID Administrator. He tweets from @rajshah

Obama Administration Launches Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture

This post originally appeared on The USDA Blog.


From record droughts in Kansas to deadly wildfires in California, the United States is feeling the effects of climate change. These same conditions have a dire impact across the developing world, especially for poor, rural smallholder farmers whose very lives are threatened every time the rains arrive late, the floods rush in, or the temperature soars.

Climate change induced degradation of land could be the inheritance of inaction regarding climate change.

Climate change induced degradation of land could be the inheritance of inaction regarding climate change. / George Safonov

By 2050, the world’s population is expected to reach nine billion people. Feeding them will require at least a 60 percent increase in agricultural production. There is no greater challenge to meeting this need than climate change. It poses a range of unprecedented threats to the livelihoods of the world’s most vulnerable people and to the very planet that sustains us. In order to ensure that hundreds of millions of people are not born into a debilitating cycle of under-nutrition and hunger, we must address the urgent threat that climate change poses.

That’s why today we’re announcing the launch of the Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture. The idea was born eight months ago, when an international delegation of leaders—including many from the USDA, the State Department, and USAID—met in South Africa for the Global Conference on Climate Change, Food Security, and Agriculture. There, we charted a more sustainable path to food security—one that preserves the environment while driving broad-based economic growth.

The Alliance’s solutions will encompass every type of climate and agricultural system, including better crop, livestock, and aquaculture varieties that can tolerate extreme heat, drought, and floods. We are also testing and deploying innovative tools for farmers, like weather-indexed crop and livestock insurance to help communities build resilience to severe weather.

A boy and a woman struggle with the dusty wind looking for water in Wajir, Kenya

A boy and a woman struggle with the dusty wind looking for water in Wajir, Kenya. / Jervis Sundays, Kenya Red Cross Society

The Alliance will advance a more inclusive, innovative, and evidence-based approach to food security. It will provide platforms for partners to collaborate on agricultural practices, make key investments, develop policies that empower producers to mitigate the impact of climate change and, through sustainable agriculture practices, contribute to a dramatic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. It will also provide farmers—particularly women—with greater economic opportunities.

Joining the Alliance represents an ambitious step in the United States’ efforts to integrate climate change policies into every area of our work. The Alliance will work in concert with the U.S. Global Climate Change Initiative, drawing on its expertise and experience grappling with climate change challenges in more than 50 developing countries around the world. This climate-specific knowledge and practice being pioneered today will be critical to protect lives and livelihoods, and promote low-carbon growth and development around the world.

As one of his Administration’s first foreign policy acts, President Obama and then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton launched Feed the Future, the U.S. Government’s global hunger and food security initiative. Led by USAID—in partnership with USDA, the State Department, and eight other federal agencies—Feed the Future empowers vulnerable communities to move from dependency to self-sufficiency.

In the last year alone, Feed the Future has improved the nutrition for 12.5 million children across 19 countries. At the same time, it has helped 7 million farmers grow their yields, raise their income, and begin the journey out of the devastating cycle of extreme poverty.

In 2012, President Obama rallied a group of global leaders at the G8 Summit at Camp David to launch the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, aimed to increase public-private partnerships and increase investment in agriculture. Today, we’ve leveraged $10 billion in investment from more than 200 companies—the majority from local African firms, including farmer-owned businesses.

Here in the United States, we’ve taken steps to address climate change and its impact on agriculture, setting up seven climate hubs and three sub-hubs; launching the Soil Health Initiative (healthier soil captures more carbon and helps farmers succeed), engaging more farmers than any time in American history in land and water conservation efforts, and we’re contributing to the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gasses. Our experiences at home can provide lessons that are valuable for farmers around the world.

We don’t have time to wait. From India to the United States, climate change poses drastic risks to every facet of our lives. Ground water supplies are vanishing faster than they can be replenished. Typhoons, wildfires, and floods are showing signs of becoming more frequent and more deadly. And with each day, families are pushed to the brink of survival—threatening our own prosperity and security in an increasingly connected world.

Addressing climate change will not be an easy fix, and it won’t be simple. Long term global food security depends on us acting together now.  That’s why the Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture is so critical. By joining together, we can design new technologies and create new alliances to effectively protect and manage the environment that supports us—and the thriving ecosystems that will sustain our world for generations to come.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

John Kerry is the U.S. Secretary of State and tweets from @JohnKerry
Tom Vilsack is the U.S. Agriculture Secretary and tweets from @USDA
Dr. Rajiv Shah is the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development and tweets from @RajShah

Five Promising Innovations in Contraception

You may know that there are countless forms of contraception available to choose from: pills, IUDs, injections, implants, and more.

What you may not know is that USAID has supported the development of essentially every modern contraceptive available today, both in the U.S. and abroad.

World Contraception Day on September 26th draws attention to the important health and economic benefits contraception brings families, communities, and nations. Studies show that pregnancies that occur too early or late in life or too close together can result in devastating consequences for both the mother and child.

Increasing access to modern contraception across the globe could avert an estimated 7 million child deaths and 450,000 maternal deaths by 2020.

We also know that family planning is crucial to ending extreme poverty by opening the opportunity for countries to reap the benefits of the demographic dividend, a phenomenon that can add as much as two percent to annual GDP growth for decades.

For this reason, USAID has worked for nearly half a century to expand access to voluntary family planning information and services across the globe.

As we work to meet the needs of the 222 million women who want to avoid pregnancy but aren’t using modern contraception, it is vital for us to invest in new methods that expand women’s options. Studies show that some women don’t use currently available contraceptives because of concerns over potential side-effects, preference for non-hormonal methods, and a lack of options for women who have infrequent sex. Furthermore, we must expand availability of long-acting reversible contraceptives and permanent methods for women who choose to delay or limit childbearing.  Here are five promising new innovations in contraception:

SILCs Diaphragm. / Credit: PATH/Mike Wang

SILCs Diaphragm. / Credit: PATH/Mike Wang

1)  SILCs Diaphragm: The SILCS diaphragm, marketed as the Caya® contoured diaphragm, is a new type of diaphragm that is easy to use, non-hormonal, does not need to be fitted by a clinician, and is reusable for up to three years. In addition to being a contraceptive, this diaphragm has the potential to be a true multipurpose prevention product, serving as a delivery platform for gels that help protect against HIV and other STIs. After numerous studies clinically proving safety, acceptability, and comfort, Caya® recently received FDA regulatory approval for marketing within the United States. USAID and partners are currently working in Malawi and Zambia to make this new contraceptive available to women.

Sayana Press. / Credit: PATH/Patrick McKern

Sayana Press. / Credit: PATH/Patrick McKern

2) Sayana Press: Sayana Press is an injectable contraceptive packaged in a pre-filled single-use syringe. Its unique delivery system makes it more portable and easier to use, allowing injections to be delivered by health care workers to women at home or in other convenient settings. This new delivery system has the potential to drastically expand the availability of injectable contraceptives in the hardest-to-reach areas. Through a public-private partnership, USAID, DFID, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Pfizer, and Path are supporting the introduction of Sayana Press in Senegal, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Niger and Bangladesh.

Woman's Condom. / PATH

Woman’s Condom. / PATH

3) Woman’s Condom: The Woman’s Condomis designed to be easy to insert, use and remove, making it unique compared to other female condoms. Condoms offer contraception and protection against HIV in one inexpensive, simple-to-use package. As awareness about the multipurpose protection benefits of the female condom grows, global demand is increasing.

NES/EE vaginal ring. / Julie Sitney

NES/EE vaginal ring. / Julie Sitney

4) One-Year Contraceptive Vaginal Ring and Progesterone Vaginal Ring:  The NES+EE Contraceptive Vaginal Ring is the first medium-term hormonal method completely under the woman’s control that lasts for one year. This discreet method meets the needs of women who may encounter partner opposition and who don’t want a family planning method that requires a daily routine. The three-month Progerone Vaginal Ring for breastfeeding women is an effective, user-controlled method that can be used safely by breastfeeding women to aid in spacing pregnancies. It does not affect a woman’s ability to produce breast milk and does not require insertion by a healthcare provider.

CycleTel. / Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University

CycleTel. / Institute for Reproductive Health, Georgetown University

5) Digital Fertility-Awareness Based Methods of Family Planning iCycleBeads™ Smartphone Apps, CycleTel™ and CycleBeads® Online are mobile and digital services that enable women to use the Standard Days Method (SDM) directly on a phone or internet-enabled device. This effective, natural family planning method helps women track their cycle and know on which days there is a high likelihood of getting pregnant.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Ellen Starbird is the Director of USAID’s Office of Population and Reproductive Health.

René Van Slate: “I’ve pretty much done everything that terrifies me… except for Ebola”

Morgana Wingard This is the first blog in our Profiles in Courage series in which photojournalist Morgana Wingard compiles snapshots and sound bites from our USAID and Disaster Assistance Response Team staff on the front lines of the Ebola response. Here she talks to a veteran in humanitarian disaster assistance, René Van Slate, who serves as a liaison between the military on the ground and the U.S. civilian team.
René Van Slate

René Van Slate
USAID Humanitarian Assistance Advisor to the U.S. Military

A veteran in humanitarian disaster assistance, René Van Slate is afraid of nothing… nothing except Ebola. She was on the ground after the flooding in Thailand in 2011, typhoon Bopha in the Philippines in 2012, the Republic of Marshall Islands drought in 2013, and typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines last year. Now, on her fifth disaster response team René explains her trepidation, “Ebola is microscopic, it’s covered in mystery and it’s incredibly deadly.” But, René is here with USAID facing her greatest fear on the front lines of the Ebola response in Liberia.

René touched down with the first crew from USAID’s Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) at the beginning of August. Since then, she has liaised between the military on the ground and the U.S. civilian team, advising and coordinating logistics to best utilize military assets and personnel. Specifically, she is working on Operation Liberty with the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) supported by U.S. forces to build Ebola treatment units across Liberia.

One of the greatest challenges on the ground is that almost no one had ever dealt with an Ebola outbreak other than Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and those were much smaller and rural. “The whole humanitarian community is learning Ebola,” René says. “Though [building] an Ebola treatment unit is simple, like rocket science, it must be done perfectly every time.”

In an operation as large and complex as the current Ebola response, it takes a team of people working day in and day out processing requests to arrange for all the logistics to get materials transported, imported and delivered to where they are needed.

The best part of her job is days like today, when requests are fulfilled, referring to Thursday’s  arrival of 9,000 community protection kits—a joint effort of UNICEF, the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation and USAID—as part of the response to help Liberians fight Ebola. Each kit includes biohazard bags, soap, personal protective equipment, and gloves. They will be distributed to Ebola Community Centers across Liberia in partnership with UNICEF.
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(all photos by Morgana Wingard)

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Morgana Wingard is a photojournalist documenting the many facets of the Ebola crisis in Liberia. All this week she will be guest posting from USAID’s instagram

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