USAID Impact Photo Credit: USAID and Partners

Archives for Women

Video of the Week: Empowering Women Through Horticultural Innovations

The USAID Horticulture Project in Bangladesh aims to educate and train local farmers on innovative agricultural technologies that help diversify crops to increase nutritional value. With our partners the International Potato Center, AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center, BRAC and Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), we are working with local farmers to diversify diets and agricultural production systems with potato, orange-fleshed sweet potato, summer tomato, and nutritious indigenous vegetables. Meet some of the women farmers that have benefited from training in grafting tomato and producing sweet potato seedlings.

Learn more about our Mission of the Month: USAID Bangladesh.

Like USAID Bangladesh on Facebook and follow @USAID_BD and #MissionofMonth on Twitter for ongoing updates!

Preparing Youth for Employment

When it comes to preparing youth for employment, what strategies work best? As USAID’s recently-released State of the Field papers conclude, there is a need for more research and evidence on what types of interventions make a difference in strengthening youth livelihoods and employment. In Mali, Education Development Center’s (EDC) youth program  – PAJE-Nièta (Projet d’Appui aux Jeunes Entrepreneurs or Support to Youth Entrepreneurs Project) – is tracking several factors that affect youth livelihoods while highlighting issues and challenges that need to be better understood.

PAJE-Nièta has shown that young people are most eager for the business technical skills training and less for literacy and numeracy, so program delivery was adjusted to offer more business training earlier on. We also hope to learn which literacy and numeracy skills are most important for young people to have successful businesses in places where there is very little written local language.

Women in Mali using "Stepping Stone." Photo credit: EDC

Women in Mali improve literacy and numeracy skills through “Stepping Stone.” Photo credit: EDC

The PAJE-Nièta Project aims to increase access to local value chains by offering agro-enterprise development for 12,000 out-of-school rural youth. The project works in rural, often remote and difficult-to-access villages in Mali, where more than half of enrolled project youth have never been to school, while 80 percent are illiterate. Because of the major literacy gap, the project is offering literacy and numeracy training integrated with agri-business support services, business training, and audio instruction using a mobile phone platform created by EDC called “Stepping Stone.”

Results to date from the PAJE-Nièta Project show that 56 percent of youth who completed technical training have gone on to successfully start a micro-enterprise, with the proportion expected to rise as more data is received. Women outnumber male youth by 2 to 1 as participants, and in starting agriculture-based income generation activities. Young women, however, report lower profits with their businesses. Existing research on gender and agriculture suggests that results vary based on the resources available to men vs. women and inputs used. We are now studying these factors to learn more about gender differences within youth livelihoods, since this topic is not consistently analyzed under youth programs.

Another issue that has emerged in this youth work in Mali and elsewhere is the role of youth in family structures and how it may impact the benefits they gain. Our programs generally target youth with trainings and support based on the assumption that they are autonomous individuals and make decisions for themselves about what activities they engage in, or on whether they spend or save money. And yet, young people are a part of large and small family structures that influence their decisions  (particularly young women) about what work they do and when, as well as what they do with their earnings. This is important to consider when evaluating results from livelihood programs with youth; it is central to shaping the questions we ask and what we are measuring.

EDC is also tracking improvements in technical competence with respect to production techniques and business management; input costs; products sold; commencement, duration, and increase in the volume of both production and sales. We track literacy and math skills through exit interviews and performance tests and data on sales, production, and business management indicators. We are also assessing the use of mobile phones to increase literacy and numeracy.

The project seeks to prove the hypothesis that longer-term self-employment requires not just technical competence, but a commitment to entrepreneurial culture nurtured through mentoring. Toward that end, we conduct appraisals of youth microenterprises that are successfully managed for at least six months to determine the benefits realized by out-of-school youth and their families in the long term.

EDC’s work in Mali and around the world is contributing to a broader evidence base on youth livelihoods and employment with the goal of expanding opportunities for young people to support themselves and their families.

Nancy Taggart is a youth development specialist at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC). She has worked in the field for 20 years, and is currently the Team Leader for EDC’s Youth Technical Team. EDC manages more than 200 projects in 30 countries. Visit www.edc.org.

New Mobile Clinics Take to the Road in Lesotho

This originally appeared on the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Blog.

Last month, the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) teamed up with the Lesotho Ministry of Health (MOH) to launch two mobile health care clinics that will provide HIV/AIDS and other health care services to residents in Lesotho’s rural communities. On July 11, EGPAF’s Chief Operating Officer (COO) Brad Kiley joined representatives from the Lesotho MOH and other high-level government officials at a ceremony to celebrate the new mobile units and how they will improve access to health care services to people throughout the country. The clinics are made possible thanks to generous support from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).

Representatives from the Lesotho Ministry of Health, USAID, and EGPAF – including EGPAF COO Brad Kiley (in orange tie) – at a launch for two mobile clinics in Lesotho. Photo credit: EGPAF

Kiley noted that he is particularly proud of EGPAF’s success in Lesotho and is grateful for the kindness and support of the Government of Lesotho and the Ministry of Health. He also acknowledged and thanked USAID on behalf of the Foundation for its generous contributions to the key project of Strengthening Clinical Services in Lesotho.

Speaking at the same ceremony on behalf of the Health Minister, Principal Secretary to the Ministry of Health, Lefu Manyokole, said the mobile clinics come at the right time, when the Ministry is revitalizing primary health care and trying to strengthen the health system. He also commended the partnership and continued support EGPAF is giving to the Government of Lesotho.

He continued by emphasizing the MOH’s commitment to properly maintain and carefully coordinate the use of these mobile clinics so that they are effectively used for strengthening linkages and helping malnourished people in the region.

EGPAF will work with the MOH to provide integrated health services to patients in the remote areas of the mountainous districts of Thaba-Tseka and Mohale’s Hoek, where there is a high prevalence of HIV among pregnant women along with high rates of malnutrition among children and overall limited access to maternal, neonatal, and pediatric care. Each mobile clinic is equipped with two consulting rooms with collapsible examination couches, a metal stairway and emergency/wheelchair pathway, air conditioning, and built-in generators. Initially, services will include HIV/AIDS testing and treatment, prevention of the mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, nutrition counseling, and other maternal and child health services.

These services are part of a larger effort by EGPAF and the Partnership for HIV-Free Survival (PHFS) and Nutrition Assessment Counseling Support (NACS) program to reduce malnutrition in the region, especially in HIV-positive women and children.

EGPAF has been active in promoting the use of mobile clinics throughout Africa. To learn more, click here.

To learn more about our work in Lesotho, click here.

Mapalesa Lemeke is Communications Officer for the Foundation, based in Lesotho.

Photo of the Week: Market Linkages in Bangladesh

Bangladesh

USAID creates market linkages to sustain traditional weaving of indigenous women. USAID’s environment activity, the Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL), improves diversified livelihoods that are environmentally sustainable and resilient to climate change. USAID has worked with the Government of Bangladesh and local communities to better manage and conserve Bangladesh’s natural resources and biodiversity since 1998. More resilient livelihoods and ecosystems will help Bangladesh meet development goals and move along the path to becoming a healthy, prosperous country. CREL is implemented by Winrock International.

Learn more about our Mission of the Month: USAID Bangladesh.

Like USAID Bangladesh on Facebook and follow @USAID_BD and #MissionofMonth on Twitter for ongoing updates!

HIV+ and Pregnant: A Deadly Combination?

Since 1990, the global number of maternal deaths has declined by almost half to 287,000 per year. Increased access to family planning and improved maternity care, including emergency care when needed, have played a significant part in this reduction. At the same time, the number of people dying from AIDS-related deaths has been declining since the 2000s because of access to life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) and a decline in HIV prevalence. Nonetheless, these positive trends are masking a troubling reality for many women in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to new estimates, HIV-positive pregnant women had 8 times the risk of death during pregnancy than HIV-negative pregnant women.

A couple from Nigeria holds their 5-month-old HIV-negative baby. Photo credit: Deidre Schoo, International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs, Columbia University School of Public Health

A couple from Nigeria holds their 5-month-old HIV-negative baby. Photo credit: Deidre Schoo, International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs, Columbia University School of Public Health

It’s a sobering statistic, and it calls both the HIV and maternal health communities to joint action. But what can be done? How can we improve HIV and maternal health programs to save the lives of these women? Unfortunately, the answer is unsatisfying. We just don’t know the solution…yet. Certainly the provision of ARVs to HIV-positive pregnant women for her health and the health of her child is a vital piece of the puzzle. Many countries are shifting their strategies to reach these women by providing lifelong treatment for pregnant women living with HIV. However, ARVs are probably not the entire answer as HIV-positive pregnant women also have an increased risk for complications relating to other co-infections like tuberculosis, sepsis, and pneumonia. Questions remain, and more research on the nexus of HIV and pregnancy is necessary.

In an effort to move the HIV and maternal health communities to action, USAID, CDC, and the Maternal Health Task Force convened a meeting in early June on “Maternal Health, HIV and AIDS: Examining Research through a Programmatic Lens.” We brought together technical experts from around the world who have been investigating the intersection of HIV and maternal health. We were electrified by the dynamic group and the data presented on topics ranging from causes of maternal deaths, stigma and discrimination in health services, and tough considerations around Option B+. A smaller group committed to develop a formal research agenda to outline the priority questions that remain.

This meeting was just the beginning of the dialogue, and we’d like to invite you to participate in the conversation and add to the evidence base as we move forward. The full content of the meeting is available online at the Maternal Health Task Force’s website. We continue to seek the latest resources, research findings, and publications from around the world on this topic. To read more on the subject, find relevant news and publications, and suggest additional resources, see here. Finally, watch for more news from USAID as we continue these important discussions and learn more from sub-Saharan African countries that are tackling this issue.

From the Field in Zimbabwe: Unexpectedly HIV-Free

For a pregnant woman, it takes courage to visit Epworth Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. Many must travel long distances to get there, but that is not the only reason. They come to the clinic to learn their HIV status or to receive antiretroviral (ARV) medication, and when they first arrive, many of the women have little hope of giving birth to a healthy child. Once they get there, however, they learn that although they have HIV, they do not need to pass it to their children.

I visited the clinic to learn how USAID is supporting the delivery of high-quality HIV/AIDS services in Zimbabwe.

Rosemary proudly holds her HIV-free baby after receiving prenatal treatment from a USAID-sponsored clinic outside Harare, Zimbabwe. Photo credit: Zoe Halpert, USAID intern

In the waiting room, I spoke with Rosemary, a 40-year-old, HIV-positive mother who was holding an 8-month-old baby. Rosemary came to the clinic for the first time several years ago when her husband’s health began to deteriorate and she suspected that they might both be HIV-positive. She was right; she tested positive for HIV and began ARV treatment several weeks later. While I was talking with Rosemary, her baby sleepily opened her eyes and chewed her blanket. She was born healthy and HIV-free.

The prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-AIDS program at Epworth clinic started in 2001. USAID provides infant HIV test kits and ARVs to many clinics throughout Zimbabwe, including Epworth. USAID’s partner, the Organisation for Public Health Interventions and Development (OPHID), provides training and supervision to the health-care workers in the clinic.  With support from USAID, this local organization is quickly increasing its ability to better address the HIV-AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe.

Epworth clinic sees about 80 pregnant women and nursing mothers each day. When they first arrive at the clinic, they are tested for HIV and educated about family planning. As a result of the support the clinic has received from USAID, through OPHID, the number of HIV-positive babies has gone down significantly. Today, 98 percent of babies that are part of the program test negative.

When I talked with the clinic’s nurses, they told me, “If we didn’t have the USAID program, 98 percent of our patient’s babies would be HIV positive.” They also acknowledged that there would be a significant population decline.

As my visit came to a close, I asked Rosemary what advice she would give to other pregnant women. “Every woman should know her HIV status,” she said. She has found the courage to tell some of her friends her status, and strongly encourages them to get tested for their entire family’s benefit.

Visit OPHID for more information about OPHID.

Learn more about USAID’s work in Zimbabwe

From the Field in South Sudan: Mother of Nine Helps Rural Women Deliver Safely

At age 38, Mary Konyo has nine children, including a set of twins. She has been a traditional birth attendant since 1997, before South Sudan became independent, and has helped 23 women deliver children safely women in the last 16 years. Two years ago, she decided to stop having children so she could focus more on helping other pregnant women in distress.

I was touched by Konyo’s story when I heard it at a public forum in Juba (South Sudan’s capital), and I contacted her to learn more about her work to save the lives of pregnant women in her community.

Mary Konyo (right) testifies on the benefits of using misoprostol to reduce severe bleeding after childbirth.  Photo: Victor Lugala

Mary Konyo (right) testifies on the benefits of using misoprostol to reduce severe bleeding after childbirth. Photo credit: Victor Lugala

Her personal experiences with childbirth have inspired her. “When I delivered my first child, I bled excessively for three days. I was very weak,” Konyo told me.

A majority of rural South Sudanese women deliver at home, mostly without the help of a midwife, and some of them die from complications. Excessive bleeding after childbirth, or postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), is one of the leading causes of maternal death in South Sudan.

In recognition of her community work, Konyo was among a few women nominated from her community to attend a USAID-funded workshop on reducing PPH. Workshop participants gained knowledge and skills to help them talk with their communities about the importance of using misoprostol — a medicine that can prevent severe bleeding — to prevent PPH. They also learned what to do when a woman experiences PPH.

In addition to practical skills, the workshop emphasized the need for community outreach to help people understand the importance of giving birth in a health facility, where it can be easier to address complications. Konyo returned to her community as a home health promoter and started a door-to-door awareness campaign. She advises pregnant women to regularly attend antenatal clinic to help ensure that they have safe deliveries. “I particularly tell them about the dangers of excessive bleeding after birth,” Konyo said.

She is also able to give pregnant women misoprostol to take immediately after giving birth. But, she added, “I always tell women to deliver safely in the clinic.” Aware of rural poverty, Konyo advises pregnant women to save a little money for their transport to the hospital for delivery. In her community, women in labor are often transported to the nearest clinic on motorbike taxis, called boda-bodas.

Konyo told me she also encourages husbands to accompany their wives to the clinic, adding that men are expected to pay the hospital bills when their wives give birth.

She believes misoprostol will help drastically reduce severe bleeding immediately after childbirth in her community, pointing out that women who take misoprostol regain strength on the third day after delivery and can return to their everyday activities more quickly. Konyo says the men whose wives have used misoprostol are also happy: “Now they are asking for a ‘wonder medicine’ that will reduce birth pangs and hasten childbirth.”

Learn more about USAID’s work in South Sudan and follow USAID South Sudan on Facebook and Twitter (@USAIDSouthSudan)!

Video of the Week: USAID Launches “Promote” a New Initiative to Benefit Afghan Women

Last week, Administrator Shah at the United States Insittute for Peace, launched a five-year program targeting the education, promotion, and training of a new generation of Afghan women, aged 18-30.  Named “Promote,” the program’s goal is to increase women’s contributions to Afghanistan’s development by strengthening women’s rights groups, boosting female participation in the economy, increasing the number of women in decision making positions within the Afghan government, and helping women gain business and management skills. Learn more about “Promote”  in this clip from BBC World News.

Demographic and Health Survey Show Positive Results in Haiti

A newly released nationwide health survey of Haiti shows continuing positive trends on key health-care indicators in particular those of Haitian women and children. The latest survey, undertaken by the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population, was conducted in 2012 and compares with the prior survey done in 2006. It shows steady improvements among key indicators despite significant health challenges in Haiti due to the 2010 earthquake and cholera outbreak. Of note were improved indicators for child vaccination and malnutrition, infant and child mortality, women’s health and contraception use. The report indicated no increase in HIV prevalence, which remained steady.

Patients get laboratory work done at a USAID-supported health clinic in Ouanaminthe, Haiti on May 15, 2013. Photo credit: Kendra Helmer/USAID

The Morbidity, Mortality, and Service Utilization Survey measures progress and setbacks in health outcomes over the years. The results were announced July 9 by Dr. Florence Guillaume Duperval, Haiti’s Minister of Public Health and Population. The survey has been administered in Haiti five times since 1994.

The previous survey was administered in Haiti between 2005 and 2006; this latest survey was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012. Over 13,000 households participated in the current survey, representing rural and urban areas in all of Haiti’s 10 departments, including camps for people displaced by the January 2010 earthquake. The results were eagerly anticipated by health experts concerned of possible setbacks brought on by the devastating quake, which killed more than 230,000 people and displaced more than 1.5 million.

However, the survey results show that many health outcomes have improved in Haiti. The data collected in the survey show improvements in women’s health, improved nutritional status among the population, and an increase in use of contraceptive methods. Currently, more than two-thirds of pregnant Haitians have made the recommended number of antenatal visits, an increase from 50 percent in 2006; the prevalence of anemia among women has declined from 55 percent in 2000 to 49 percent in 2012; and the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased from 22 percent to 31 percent between 2000 and 2012.

Health data for children also showed positive results. Childhood vaccinations increased from 53 percent in 2006 to 62.5 percent in 2012. With regard to nutrition, the survey showed that 22 percent of children under 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition, a decrease from 29 percent in 2006. The survey also revealed a decrease in acute malnutrition from 10 percent in 2006 to 5 percent in 2012 and a decrease in percent of children underweight from 18 percent to 11 percent.

Childhood mortality has decreased in Haiti over the last 15 years. Survey results show that infant mortality has decreased from 79 to 59 deaths for 1,000 live births. In addition, mortality for children under 5 has also decreased from 112 deaths to 88 deaths per 1,000 live births.

Among other results, the survey revealed that the HIV prevalence among those ages 15-59 have remained the same:  2.7 percent among women and 1.7 percent among men.

USAID is working closely with the Government of Haiti to continue to improve health outcomes for all Haitians. “The information in this survey forces us to continue to work together, to strengthen our interventions and our methods so that progress in the health sector in Haiti is sustained,” said Marc Desjardins, Deputy Chief of Mission of the U.S. Embassy in Port-au-Prince, during the July 9 event.

USAID’s goal is to improve access to health care services and build the Government of Haiti’s capacity to manage and oversee its health programs. Currently, about 50 percent of the population has access to a vast network of USAID-sponsored health facilities throughout the country that provide core health services such as maternal and child health, family planning, and nutrition. In addition, diagnostic and treatment services for tuberculosis and HIV and AIDS services can be accessed at these health facilities. HIV and AIDS services include access to antiretroviral therapy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, palliative care, and voluntary testing and counseling. USAID programs aim to reduce risky behaviors and maintaining people living with HIV and AIDS on treatment.

Much remains to be done in Haiti. For example, despite high levels of knowledge of family planning, only 35 percent of married women are using any method and 31 percent are using a modern method. However, the positive health trends revealed by this data shows that Haiti continues to move forward despite the earthquake, the ongoing cholera epidemic, and many other challenges that threaten health outcomes. These results are a testament to the hard work and strong commitment of all of those who work to build a better Haiti.

This survey was funded by USAID, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Global Fund the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria through the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP), and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).

The fifth Morbidity, Mortality, and Service Utilization Survey combined with the Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS) was conducted by the Haitian Childhood Institute [l’Institut Haïtien de l’Enfance (IHE)] in collaboration with the Haitian Statistical and Information Technology Institute [l’Institut Haïtien de Statistiques et d’Informatique (IHSI)]. This survey was supported by the Ministry of Public Health and Population [Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population (MSPP)], benefited from the technical assistance of the Demographic and Health Surveys program (MEASURE DHS), which is implemented by ICF International.

Resources:

  • Read the full DHS report.
  • See photos of USAID’s health-related programs in Haiti.

FP2020: Plans, Partnerships and Progress – One Year On

This originally appeared on The Huffington Post Blog.

Sometimes it’s hard to tell if your work really makes a difference. Three months after the London Summit on Family Planning, I led a delegation of UNFPA supporters to Ghana. We saw a diverse and inspiring range of maternal health programs — from government hospitals to an entrepreneurial midwife who designed and produced birthing stools with the help of a local carpenter.

In Tamale, we visited a brand new Marie Stopes clinic fully stocked with a range of modern contraceptive methods. It was located in the heart of the city, at a vibrant, open air market that stands at the crossroads of three ancient trade routes. For the women and men who work there, the clinic could not be more convenient — they could easily dash off for an appointment or for supplies.

Ghana woman at USAID health event. Photo credit: USAID

From there we flew north to Bolgatanga, then traveled by bus towards the border with Burkina Faso. As we drove, the tarmac gave way to unpaved roads. Cracks became grooves, and grooves became ditches. As the hours passed, the villages became smaller and the distance between them grew. Wherever we were headed, it felt worlds away from the hustle and bustle of Tamale.

Finally we arrived at our destination: a plain, L-shaped building in a small compound. It was a Planned Parenthood of Ghana clinic that provides an integrated mix of family planning and other health education and services.

Despite its remoteness, we were greeted with as much enthusiasm and excitement as we felt in Tamale. About 200 people — village elders, mothers and fathers, grandmothers and grandfathers, children — had come out to show support for their clinic. They told us about the difference the clinic was making in their lives. In this isolated location, it was their only source of medical care.

But as we toured the facility, I happened to notice one person who wasn’t taking part in the excitement. Her name was Afia, and she sat very quietly, in a corner, on a hard wooden bench. A midwife was by her side.

Afia’s face was etched in pain, but her cries were muted. With quiet dignity, and few of the trappings that attend births in countries like my own, I found out she was in labor to deliver her first child.

As a mother myself, I knew how scared she must have felt. I also knew that in Ghana, for every 100,000 women who go into labor, 350 die giving birth or because of pregnancy-related complications. The statistics can be numbing.

Afia remained on my mind and two days later, I learned she had a lovely baby girl, and both mother and child were happy and most importantly, healthy.

I know that in the coming months and years, the clinic will help Afia keep herself and her baby healthy, and will give her the contraceptives she needs to plan her family and her future.

Our work does make a difference. This is what Family Planning 2020 is all about: reaching women, no matter where they live, with the information, services and supplies they need. Program by program, clinic by clinic, and woman by woman.

One year after the London Summit on Family Planning, I am pleased to report that FP2020 continues to build the foundations of a global movement and is accelerating progress towards achieving our goal of reaching an additional 120 million women with lifesaving contraceptive information, services and supplies by 2020.

Countries are championing the cause — over twenty governments have already made commitments and a few more are gearing up to do so. National, costed family planning plans are being drafted and implemented, new health laws are being passed and service delivery barriers are being addressed. Price-reduction agreements on long-acting, reversible contraceptive implants and the scale-up in delivery of discreet, injectable contraceptives ensures that millions of women will be able to access a range of family planning methods. We’ve improved relations with allies, built and strengthened new partnerships, and established our global governance framework. I am proud of what we’ve accomplished together.

And yet, I remain acutely aware that the work of FP2020 has only just begun. We have so much more to do to ensure that family planning remains front and center on the global development agenda. This will require even stronger international partnerships to uphold and guard the unified aspirations of millions of women and girls to chart their own future.

Women like Afia are depending on us to keep the promises we made one year ago at the London Summit. As we move forward into the second year of FP2020, I am convinced and confident that working together, we shall.

Page 7 of 25:« First« 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 »Last »