Submitted by: Angela Stephens, USAID Africa Bureau
Today it was announced that in a landslide vote nearly 99% of southern Sudanese voters opted to secede from Sudan. The Government of Sudan has formally accepted the outcome, an important step in preserving peace in a region that has suffered through decades of war.
But just weeks ago, it was unclear whether it was politically, technically, and logistically possible to hold the referendum on time, in a way that would be considered legitimate and credible. There were also real fears that if the referendum did not begin as scheduled on January 9, conflict could erupt.
Watch this video by USAID staff on the ground in Sudan about the international effort to assist the people of southern Sudan with their monumental and historic undertaking.
The successful voting process resulted from the coordinated efforts of USAID technical staff and their partners, U.S. diplomats, the Southern Sudan Referendum Commission and its Juba bureau, the United Nations, and other donors. Despite extreme obstacles, the referendum began on time and was peaceful and orderly, with a turnout exceeding 97.5 percent and more than 3.8 million votes cast. The process was uniformly lauded by international observers—such as the African Union, the Arab League, the European Union, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and The Carter Center—as legitimate and transparent.
Southern Sudan is expected to declare its independence and become a new nation on July 9. USAID will continue to provide assistance to the people of Sudan, north and south, responding to humanitarian needs and helping to improve governance, food security, and livelihoods.
Guest Post by: Andrea Gay, Executive Director of Children’s Health at the United Nations Foundation
A young boy in Fada, a rural village in northern Nigeria, about to receive a measles vaccination. Eric Porterfield/UN Foundation
For the last ten years, I have seen thousands of children cry after being pricked by needle for a vaccination against measles –a deadly disease that is preventable by one quick, albeit painful, shot.
I witnessed it again this week in northern Nigeria, as the country launched a nationwide integrated measles campaign to protect 31 million children against the deadly disease. Every child nine months to five years old is receiving a measles vaccine, in addition to an oral polio vaccine for newborns through five year-olds.
Americans, who haven’t seen widespread measles outbreaks in the U.S. in decades, might be surprised to learn that measles still kills more than 450 people each day and that children are still at risk of paralysis from contracting polio.
But we are making progress—a decade ago, more than 700,000 children died from measles every year, but now the mortality rate has declined significantly – 78 percent worldwide and more than 90 percent in Africa. Strengthening routine immunization systems and increasing the capacity of trained health workers from previous health campaigns have helped pave the way for the elimination of measles.
Thanks to the leadership of Nigeria’s Ministry of Health, U.N. Agencies, nongovernmental agencies, and the support of traditional and religious leaders ahead of and during immunization campaigns, measles and polio have nearly been eliminated in Nigeria.
USAID worked closely with Nigerian counterparts to reinforce these efforts and revitalized the polio immunization teams by hiring independent monitors to conduct spot checks to quickly identify problems and improve motivation and coverage. Working outside their own communities and the polio team structure, the monitors have proven to be very effective.
As I have witnessed during this and many other trips, integrated campaigns are one of the most cost-effective and efficient ways to eliminate both polio and measles. Immunizations for both diseases need to get to the same children who are often the most vulnerable and in the hardest to reach places. Eliminating both of these diseases can and should move forward together and it would be a missed opportunity not to put a stop to them both at the same time.
But we can’t do this alone. Funding shortfalls are threatening our recent gains. The Government of Nigeria is one of the African countries leading the way in financing immunization campaigns. However these diseases spread like wildfire, and even Nigeria has seen recent measles and polio outbreaks because not all of the children have been reached. The donor community must step up to support the elimination of measles and the eradication of polio as soon as possible so we can build off of our gains, instead of lose them.
Every shot, no matter how painful it is to watch for those brief seconds, offers a lifetime of health and promise for millions of children in Africa and around the world.
Provisional results announced in Juba Sunday for the referendum on self-determination for southern Sudan indicate that southern Sudanese voted overwhelmingly to secede and form a new nation. Of more than 3.8 million votes cast, nearly 99 percent chose secession, and just over 1 percent chose unity with northern Sudan.
Southern Sudan Referendum Commission Chairman Professor Mohamed Ibrahim Khalil and Deputy Chairman Justice Chan Reec Madut, who is also chairman of the Southern Sudan Referendum Bureau in Juba, jointly declared provisional results of the referendum, which is part of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended more than two decades of civil war in Sudan.
“The people of South Sudan are … indebted to the government and people of the United States of America, USAID,” Justice Chan said in remarks at the announcement. “The Southern Sudan referendum on self-determination could not have taken place on time without the support of the international community,” he said. “Our international partners and friends put in robust material, technical, and moral support that is still literally lapping on our doorsteps.”
USAID provided comprehensive assistance to help carry out the referendum, including technical and material assistance, civic and voter education, and support for domestic and international observation of the process, and funded out-of-country registration and voting in eight diaspora countries, including the United States. This assistance is part of USAID’s broad goal of supporting peace in Sudan, including by helping to implement all provisions of the CPA.
Final results of the referendum are expected to be announced February 7 in Khartoum if no legal challenges are filed, and February 14 if legal challenges must first be addressed. If secession is the final outcome of the referendum, establishment of a new nation would not occur before July 9, 2011, when the CPA expires.
Most people are familiar with how information can be used to promote conflict. Media control and propaganda can spread misinformation, fear, and violence. Purposeful jamming or outright destruction of communications lines during attacks can prolong the length and severity of conflict. But can information and technology be used to promote peace instead? In East Africa, USAID programs are doing just that.
Recipients test high frequency radios in East Africa. The USAID-funded radios allow information to be transmitted quickly to the local authorities and those involved in conflict mitigation. Photo credit: CEWARN.
In 2009, more than 300 people died and tens of thousands more were displaced as conflicts flared across the Ethiopian/Kenyan border. The clashes involved pastoral communities who fought over livestock, land, and water rights. These types of conflicts undermine progress in health, economic growth, and governance; create conditions favorable for extremism and terrorism; and at times require costly humanitarian assistance. (See a map of cross-border conflicts in Africa, PDF, 1.5MB.)
In partnership with the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)’s Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism, USAID is implementing an Information and Communications Technologies for Peace program in the region with a focus on the pastoral border areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda.
Most recently, USAID provided high-frequency radios to representatives of two communities living on the Ethiopian/Kenyan border in Jinka Town, southern Ethiopia. These radios allow community members to rapidly report infractions—such as the theft of livestock—that might otherwise escalate into retaliation and violence. And because technology alone is not enough, USAID also provided a two-day radio training workshop with provincial officials and peace monitors.
A typical scenario occurred in Uganda recently when Jie warriors from the Kotido District raided 40 head of cattle from Matheniko communities in the Moroto District. The owners of the livestock informed the local chief, who contacted the radio operator, who quickly reached the local authorities. As a result, all the stolen cattle were successfully recovered without injuries or deaths. Peace monitors are now reporting many other cases where conflicts have been mitigated or prevented through improved communications.
At the center where I observed, Lologo Center in Juba, five Sudanese poll workers, five Sudanese domestic observers, and four USAID staff members gathered in one of the two rooms of a primary school where all week the poll workers were on duty from 8 a.m. until 5 or 6 p.m. as their fellow citizens came to vote. After working all day on the last polling day, January 15, the poll workers continued directly to counting the vote, despite that they had little to eat or drink all day.
Once the 14 of us were assembled in the room, a policeman posted outside to guard the vote-counting process shut the heavy metal classroom door so that no one else could enter, screeching the sliding door lock into place.
First the chairman of the referendum center, a secondary school teacher named Primo Celerino Monai, announced the number of registered voters at that location—2,596—and the cumulative number of votes cast according to the daily log, 2,536—a 98 percent turnout. A poll worker took out seven envelopes that contained spoiled ballots from each of the seven days of voting, and opened each envelope, emptying the spoiled ballots onto a table in the center of the room. There were a total of 5. One of the poll workers then retrieved a tarp from the USAID-funded polling kit that contains supplies needed at the referendum center, including scissors, tape, a calculator, and battery-operated lanterns that were necessary because as is common in southern Sudan, there was no electricity at this center, and it soon became dark.
Southern Sudanese poll workers at Lologo Center, Juba, with USAID staff Mickey Richer, Cliff Lubitz, and Maura McCormick stand in front of 2,483 votes for secession after ballots were counted. Photo Credit: Angela Stephens/USAID
The poll workers spread the tarp over a large table in the center of the room. One poll worker placed the translucent box that contained the ballots on the table, cut the plastic ties that had locked the box all week, removed the lid, and emptied all the ballots onto the table. The five poll workers then bundled all the ballots into stacks of 50 for ease of counting, and once that was complete, counted to make sure the bundled ballots equaled the number of ballots cast as recorded each day in the center’s journal.
Occasionally during the course of the vote count, Mr. Monai read through the Southern Sudan Referendum Commission (SSRC) polling and counting manual provided to the more than 14,000 poll workers trained with the assistance of USAID partner the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES), which explains step by step how to proceed with all the procedures of polling, including the vote count.
The poll workers wrote signs that read “Unity,” “Secession,” “Unmarked,” and “Invalid,” and taped them to the edge of the table nearest to us observers so they could pile the ballots into each category after opening and reading them.
One of the poll workers then stood in front of us and one by one, picked up a paper ballot, showed us whether or not the ballot had the required red stamp of the SSRC, the Sudanese body in charge of the referendum process, and then turning over the form, showed us the ink thumbprint that indicated whether the voter chose unity (written in Arabic and English, and indicated visually by two clasped hands) or secession (indicated visually by a single open palm). A few ballots were unmarked, and a few were invalid, either because the voter’s thumbprint was apparent on both unity and secession, or because the ballot lacked the required red SSRC stamp.
As the reading out of votes began in the solemn room, lit only by three battery-operated lamps on the table, the poll worker announced as he held up each ballot one by one for us to see: “The stamp is valid”—showing us the stamp and then turning the ballot over –“and the vote is secession.” Five hours later, when the poll workers had opened all the ballots, the final count was 2,483 votes for secession, 19 votes for unity, 19 invalid, and 15 unmarked.
The transparency of the process and the sense of duty and professionalism the poll workers displayed was admirable. Each of us in the room could see every ballot and every stage of the counting process.
The enormity of what those dedicated and exhausted poll workers were doing was lost on none of us—it was nothing short of transmitting the voice of the people of southern Sudan, after decades of war and hardship, through the ballot box as they decided their future course as a people.
In a packed and conversation-filled room in northern Tanzania, the wheels of microfinance are spinning – quietly and efficiently, yet furiously. Every week, this group of people owning and running small businesses worth less than $700 comes together in Arusha to make payments on microloans received from Promotion of Rural Initiatives and Development Enterprises Limited (PRIDE), a Tanzanian microfinance institution. Each also deposits earnings into a savings account, in fulfillment of the requirement that borrowers incrementally strengthen their financial position. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through a 75% bond guarantee, has helped PRIDE maintain and increase microcredit activities.
Microfinance Empowers Entrepreneurs in Tanzania Photo credit: Gregg Rapaport/USAID
When called to the front of the room, borrowers push a small pile of well-worn Tanzanian bills across a table toward three employees. The first counts the money, the second makes a notation or two on a printed spreadsheet, and the third slides change back across the table. These transactions, happening one after another, are banal to watch but breathtaking to consider. This is innovative thinking – applied to small lending – at work. Entrepreneurial but poor Tanzanians, who are shut out of traditional sources of credit, are being empowered (through microcredit loans up to $650) to realize all manner of small business dreams, and lift themselves and their families out of poverty.
In Tanzania, most land is untitled and there is no legal framework allowing “movable assets,” such as livestock, to be used as collateral for accessing loans. Typical bank loan models simply do not work here, but in microfinance…collateral is not necessary. PRIDE counts on good-faith and social cohesion for repayment by making group loans that involve 50 people. Group members work out the specific allocation of funds themselves and are responsible individually and jointly for paying the loan back. This multi-borrower structure values each entrepreneur’s success, incentivizing more successful entrepreneurs to assist struggling peers, and the intra-group transparency promotes fiscal responsibility by each group member, ensuring high levels of repayment.
How well does it work? In Tanzania, 99% of all PRIDE microloans are repaid.
Martha Mpinga is a Tanzanian entrepreneur who purchases small amounts of African textiles from wholesalers and sells them to retail buyers for a profit. “I started with a loan of 50,000 Tanzanian shillings (approximately $35),” she explains. Once the original was repaid, she qualified for a higher microfinance loan. Martha has repeated this cycle several times as her business expanded. “My loans grew…and now I have a loan of 1 million shillings (approximately $650).” At this loan level, sufficient inventory is maintained and it drives a sustainable business. She pulls richly-patterned wax print cloths, used by local woman to make clothing, from her bag and delivers a convincing sales pitch about their high quality and other decorative uses for such beautiful fabric. The Arusha branch manager, who is standing nearby, ribs Martha that she could avoid next week’s trip to the branch by making a second microloan payment today, using the proceeds from this just completed sale. They laugh, both knowing that the regular repayment meetings which bring Martha together with 49 other entrepreneurs, is essential to the microfinance model.
In November 2010, USAID provided its first guarantee for a microfinance bond issued in sub-Saharan Africa. With USAID’s support, PRIDE secured 15.3-billion Tanzanian shillings ($10 million) from the Tanzanian capital markets. As a result, access to credit will no longer be just a dream for an estimated 10,000 additional Tanzanian entrepreneurs.
By Michael Eddy, Democracy and Governance Team Leader, USAID/Sudan
JUBA—Here at the Southern Sudan Referendum Bureau (SSRB) data center, staff are hard at work processing results forms of the votes cast in the referendum on southern Sudan’s self-determination, which concluded January 15 after seven days of voting. Voters had two choices—unity with northern Sudan, or secession.
“All the truth will come out from this office, and we have made sure it is accessible to the observers,” SSRB Chairman Justice Chan Reec Madut said of the data center, which he called the most important part of the SSRB, the Juba-based bureau of the Southern Sudan Referendum Commission (SSRC). “We made clear everything should be done in a very transparent way and we share it with the people,” he added.
Data center Director Benedict Lagu—the son of Joseph Lagu, Sudan’s former Vice President and former Ambassador to the United Nations—returned to southern Sudan in 2009 from the United States, where he lived for 19 years. He studied computer science in Iowa and was a professor of information technology at Elizabethtown Community College in Kentucky. He is now director of management information systems at the Southern Sudan Electricity Corporation, but was released from his position for three months to run the SSRB data center.
Results forms from 2,638 referendum voting centers across southern Sudan began arriving at the data center January 18, two days after the polls had closed. Staff enter the data into a database, which verifies voting center information such as the number of eligible voters, processes the forms, and aggregates the results.
After the results from all 2,638 referendum centers in southern Sudan are aggregated, the SSRB will announce provisional results of the ballots cast in southern Sudan—estimated at more than 3 million. Those results will be transmitted to a Khartoum data center, which is currently processing results from voting centers in northern Sudan and the eight other countries where voting occurred (Australia, Canada, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, the United Kingdom, and the United States). The SSRC is scheduled to announce preliminary results by January 31 and final results by February 14.
“It’s a very emotional thing for our people,” Justice Chan said. “They never thought they’d have this opportunity.” He added that the data center will create an archive of the results forms once they are entered. “These are documents that have something to do with the destiny of the people of southern Sudan,” he said. “We want to keep them for the people who will come after us.”
Support for the data center, including the database software and staff training, is just one aspect of USAID’s comprehensive assistance for the referendum, which is part of a broader assistance to help maintain peace and improve lives in Sudan.
Observers with the Carter Center confer as voting results forms from two locations arrive at the Southern Sudan Referendum Bureau Data Center in Juba January 19, 2011, and a policeman deployed to provide security looks on. USAID is among a community of donors supporting the Carter Center’s independent international observation of the southern Sudan self-determination referendum. Photo: Angela Stephens/USAID
It has been an uplifting and moving week in Sudan, as we have witnessed the joy and resolve of millions of southern Sudanese as they exercise their right to vote in the referendum on self-determination promised to them in the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which ended more than 20 years of deadly and ruinous war between northern and southern Sudan.
U.S. government observers from USAID and the Department of State have witnessed voters stand for hours in long lines in the hot sun, patiently and cheerfully determined to vote, particularly on Sunday, the first of seven days of voting. We have seen voters swim across a tributary of the Nile to reach their polling station after a local ferry broke down. We have witnessed elderly and handicapped voters being assisted by poll workers who were trained, with USAID assistance, to help voters in need of assistance to cast their vote. We have seen poll workers cheerfully cradling infants in their arms while the babies’ mothers voted. Southern Sudanese have been singing in the streets to express the joy of being able to freely choose their own future.
Voting is scheduled to end on Saturday, but this will not be the end of USAID assistance to the referendum process. USAID’s comprehensive assistance to the referendum process included the establishment of a data center at the Southern Sudan Referendum Commission (SSRC) bureau in Juba, which will tabulate the total number of registered voters and polling results for the referendum. We are also supporting domestic and international observation of the referendum, which is ongoing. In partnership with other donors, including the United Nations, and the SSRC, the Sudanese body in charge of the process, we are extremely gratified that the referendum began on time, and has been peaceful and orderly, with a high level of participation.
Regardless of the outcome of the referendum—whether southern Sudanese choose continued unity with northern Sudan or secession and the launch of a new nation—USAID will continue to work in partnership with the people of Sudan, north and south, to reinforce peace and improve lives and livelihoods.
“Knowledge will forever govern ignorance, and a people who mean to be their own Governors must arm themselves with the power knowledge gives.”
—James Madison, 1788
This month’s historic referendum will determine southern Sudan’s future, either as an independent country of part of a unified Sudan. Voting ends on Saturday, January 15, and enormous efforts have been launched by U.S., Sudanese, and international agencies to support a credible process—that voters know how and where to vote, that the Sudanese referendum commission is equipped to carry out referendum logistics, that sufficient ballots and voting materials are available, and that poll workers and election observers are properly trained.
At the same time, the United States has continued to provide development assistance that strengthens democracy as well as demonstrates the benefits of peace. These efforts include improving health care and access to clean water, building roads and transportation infrastructure, providing microcredit loans to spur economic growth, and—of particular importance—increasing access to and the quality of education.
Formal education is not a prerequisite for wisdom, but it is a critical part of active participation in the democratic process. Literacy is crucial for making informed voting decisions and lobbying representatives for change. The public’s ability to effectively organize and work in groups provides protection against political abuses and dictatorships. Research supports the intuition that investments in education pay returns in peace and democracy. (See a related interactive graph.)
In 2005, when Sudan ended its 22-year civil war, only 37% of southern Sudanese men and 12% of women were literate. Primary school enrollment was low, and girls in particular faced many obstacles to attending school. These obstacles included high direct and indirect costs, discriminatory attitudes and school policies, and poor access to feminine hygiene products and lack of sanitation facilities.
USAID has worked closely with the Government of Southern Sudan Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology to improve its ability to plan and implement educational reforms, increase access to primary education especially among girls, train teachers, and foster community-wide support for education.
One example of USAID’s work is the opening of a school in the Blue Nile State—a region on the north-south border of Sudan that was a major site of conflict during the civil war. The Granville-Abbas School serves 120 female students and serves as a model of girls’ education in the region, with three sets of classrooms, a library, theater, and a computer center with internet access. Better education for girls leads to benefits for their families and communities including increased economic growth, reduced poverty, improved health and nutrition, and better HIV/AIDS control.
U.S. educational programs throughout Sudan helped to increase primary school enrollment from 1.1 million in 2007 to 1.4 million in 2009. In addition, U.S. programs have trained over 2,300 teachers, including many female instructors who serve as critical role models to young girls. Beyond bricks and mortar institutions, USAID has also supported radio education to help students study English, math, local languages, and life skills. In 2009 alone, the radio programs reached over 350,000 youth and adults.