Archives for Sub-Saharan Africa
On the highest mountain in Africa one finds climbers attempting to conquer Kilimanjaro, as well as those who live in high-altitude villages struggling daily to grow food to feed their families. Small holder farmers use basic hand tools to work the land and have only a gambler’s chance of getting the adequate rain and sun necessary to grow their crops. If all goes well, they may be able to sell part of their harvest at a village marketplace or makeshift roadside display to generate income. This is no small accomplishment, as the tropical heat and wicker baskets used to transport produce to market spoils as much as 40% of each harvest. Summiting Kilimanjaro seems an easier undertaking than farming on its slopes.
The challenges facing small holder farmers are not limited to the mountain region: low-yields, inadequate storage processes and facilities, limited transportation infrastructure, and difficulty accessing credit and markets are problems that small holder farmers experience across much of Tanzania. These contribute to persistently high poverty rates and widespread malnutrition among under-five children (38% stunted and 22% underweight).
Feed The Future, the U.S. Government’s global hunger and food security initiative, focuses on specific countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The Presidential Initiative will lift 18 million vulnerable women, children and family members – mostly smallholder farmers – out of hunger and poverty. In Tanzania, USG assistance supports national strategies to reduce poverty and accelerate progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by increasing agricultural productivity and profitability, and enhancing national and regional food security. USAID brings its technical expertise and capacity to lead Feed the Future in Tanzania and is working closely with other U.S. government stakeholders, including the State Department and USDA, through a whole-of-government approach.
This video explains some of the agricultural and supply chain challenges being addressed through Feed The Future to overcome existing farming challenges and build sustainable infrastructure, processes and market linkages to assist small holder farmers raise themselves and their families out of chronic hunger and poverty.
USAID/Zimbabwe commemorated World Water Day 2011 on March 23 with a special ceremony to draw attention to the efficiency and effectiveness of rainwater collection as a way to provide clean water to families and schools. The event took place at the Tasimukira Primary School in Chitungwiza, outside the capital, Harare.
Since 2009, USAID has supported the Peri-urban Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting (PROOF) program to provide safe drinking water to over 26,000 Zimbabweans in urban and rural areas. The program was initiated in response to the worst cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe’s recent history, which led to nearly 100,000 cases and over 4,000 deaths. Poor water and sanitation systems, inadequate access to health care, and underlying risk factors such as malnutrition contributed to the severity of the epidemic.
Through this project implemented by International Relief and Development, USAID provides clean water to Zimbabweans until the water system is overhauled. The initial phase of the program focused on the high-density suburbs of Harare and Chitungwiza. In June 2010, it expanded into Mutare and Buhera in southeastern Zimbabwe.
To date, USAID has supported the installation of 805 rain water collection systems serving 2,653 households and eight schools with over 26,000 total beneficiaries. All components of the rain water harvesting systems are manufactured in Zimbabwe, creating jobs and a nascent rain water collection industry in the free market.
Rain water collection systems consist of roof gutters and a water storage tank. The equipment provides abundant clean water during the rainy season, when the highest incidents of waterborne diseases, such as cholera and typhoid fever, are seen. With regulated consumption and sufficient water storage capacity, these rainwater collection systems can provide clean drinking water all year round.
International World Water Day was first recognized by the United Nations in 1993. It is held annually on March 22 to focus attention on the importance of fresh water and to advocate for the sustainable management of fresh water resources. World Water Day 2011 emphasized the impact of rapid urban population growth, industrialization and uncertainties caused by climate change, and conflicts and natural disasters on urban water systems.
Appeared in The National Democratic Institute
By: Andrew Farrand, Program Officer, Central and West Africa, NDI
While young people under 25 comprise approximately two-thirds of Rwanda’s population, historically they have lacked meaningful opportunities to engage in politics. An older elite has traditionally made the country’s political decisions, and during the 1994 genocide, political leaders mobilized disaffected youth for violent ends. But today, many young Rwandans hope to channel their untapped power into productive and peaceful political expression.
Since September 2008, NDI has helped Rwandan political parties organize and communicate with supporters. This includes training young activists who are joining parties in increasing numbers and who are often receptive to new ideas about party organizing, democracy and technology that can help parties reach new voters and win more support.
To provide Rwandan youth with practical political skills, NDI partnered with the Rwandan Consultative Forum of Political Organisations to create the Youth Party Leadership Academy (YPLA) in Kigali last year. Funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, the academy included three months of intensive political training, as well as a study mission to Accra, Ghana, for the top-performing students. There participants learned firsthand from their Ghanaian counterparts how young people can participate actively in political parties — and support peaceful, democratic politics in the process.
This month, the Institute launched an expanded academy in two locations: the capital, Kigali, and the southern city of Butare. The academy brought together 80 under-35 activists from all 10 of Rwanda’s registered political parties for three seminars a week over 10 weeks. Sessions are led by international and local practitioners and academics, and address political party organizing, political communication, good governance, building a political career, ethical leadership, negotiation and conflict prevention, and using technology for political organizing, among numerous other topics.
NDI Resident Director Amy Pritchard has high hopes for the students. “They’re an incredibly dynamic and engaged group,” she said. “We are focusing on the role political parties play in Rwanda’s government, elections and civic life, and are working on teaching skills that will improve the students’ and their parties’ leadership abilities.”
Meanwhile, the 34 graduates from the first academy are putting their new skills to good use. Last year, the Social Democratic Party nominated YPLA graduate Theodomir Niyonsenga to serve as its second deputy general secretary. During last year’s presidential elections, graduates Claudette Mukabaseyba, Pie Nizeyimana, Telesphore Hakorimana and Sada Uwase were invited to join the forum’s national election observation mission, while others served as political party agents at polling stations, trained fellow party members in campaign skills, or helped to organize campaign rallies and get-out-the-vote efforts. Two YPLA graduates ran in last month’s local elections and one, Angélique Mukunde, was elected vice mayor for economic affairs in the capital’s Kicukiro district.
Vivian O. was born in the outskirts of Kisumu, Kenya, and is said to have entered the world smiling. Life for Vivian and others in her rural fishing village was challenging, requiring families to rely on ingenuity and perseverance in the face of little resources. With the support of her family and her local community, the opportunities created by U.S. assistance programs, and the force of her determination, Vivian would achieve more than she’d ever imagined.
By the time Vivian finished fourth grade, her mother had a stable job selling used clothes in the open-air market in Kisumu. Girls in rural communities like Vivian’s typically receive a low level of schooling. However, having completed high school herself, Vivian’s mother prized education and overcame obstacles to enroll Vivian in a proper primary school. Vivian was one of the top students in her province and eventually secured a place at Starehe Girls’ Centre, a highly competitive secondary school for gifted girls.
While in high school, Vivian became a member of the Global Give Back Circle, a circle of empowerment designed to transition a girl from poverty to prosperity. The program mentors and supports girls so they can successfully transition from high school to college to a career and to global citizenship. As the girls graduate, they commit to mentoring the next generation of girls in the circle.
In 2011, USAID announced a $3.5 million award for the education and empowerment of girls through the Global Give Back Circle. The award is matched by an additional $3.5 million in private sector funds through a Clinton Global Initiative Commitment, so that the program can help over 500 Kenyan girls progress to higher levels of education and employment. The process is implemented by the Kenya Community Development Foundation—a program by Kenyans for Kenyans.
Vivian has had many opportunities through the Global Give Back Circle. She completed a nine-month Microsoft IT course, which allowed her to access educational resources online, research colleges, and obtain a full scholarship to a U.S. college. She is studying pre-med and IT, aspiring to give back by helping millions through the connection of technology and medicine. Vivian met the U.S. Ambassador to Kenya, Michael Ranneberger, and pledged to actively participate in improving investments in people in Kenya. As a result, she made presentations to private sector CEOs in Kenya and invited them to invest in girls. Vivian says, “I feel privileged and honored to be able to be a voice for the empowerment of girls in my country.”
On March 8, 2011, Vivian joined two other young women of excellence—Maryam from Afghanistan and Terhas from Ethiopia—as special guests to the State Department’s International Women of Courage Awards, followed by a private meeting with Secretary Clinton. Vivian then visited the White House as a guest of First Lady Michelle Obama for a celebration of International Women’s Day. Two sixth-grade girls, who have benefited from a girls education program in Burkina Faso administered by the Millennium Challenge Corporation in partnership with USAID, also attended.
At the event, Mrs. Obama said, “We as a nation benefit from every girl whose potential is fulfilled, from every woman whose talent is tapped,” adding that countries worldwide are more prosperous and peaceful “when women are equal and have the rights and opportunities they deserve.”
As the 100th celebration of international women’s day approaches, I’ve been musing over the origins of the day and what it symbolizes. The first international women’s day was formally celebrated on March 19, 1911 throughout Europe, where both women and men advocated for women’s right to work under fair conditions.
In 2011, as USAID reiterates its support for advancing women’s rights, it is appropriate to reflect on how international development programs can continue to support this objective of international women’s day. The time is ripe to ask ourselves how we, as development practitioners, can continue to advance women’s role as income earners around the world.
From my twenty-six years of working in international development around the world, I believe that the key to a women’s ability to earn income is how the law defines her as an independent economic actor. Can she own and register a business? Qualify for credit without the signature of her husband, father or brother on a loan? Can she purchase property in her own name? Can she file taxes herself? Inherit property from her mother or father? What happens if she is widowed? To address these questions, USAID has sponsored several initiatives over the years that advance women’s legal rights, including rights related to income generation. These projects have initiated the dialogue over legislation which defines women status as individuals, statutes concerning marriage and divorce, inheritance and children, among other things.
USAID projects work to protect women’s rights by engaging government, civil society organizations, communities, and local leaders to change legislation that advances women’s rights. In some instances legislation change is directly related to enabling women’s economic engagement. However projects must also consider how to establish environments that are conducive to women’s economic participation. USAID has supported several projects which advance other aspects of women’s empowerment and ultimately contribute to her ability to earn an income. Projects such as the Women’s Legal Right Initiative worked in nine countries around the world on activities such as establishing policy to prohibit sexual harassment in the workplace and schools, and criminalize violence against women. In Benin, for example, this was put to practice by working with local NGOs to draft sexual harassment legislation that became law.
The first international women’s day was celebrated by both women and men. Recent studies on advancing women’s rights confirm that family dynamics for women get better when social policies and programs support greater involvement by men in these issues. A new publication by the UN documents this process showing how women’s status increases when she has earning opportunities that are reinforced with social policies that support both women and men.
As we begin to think about how we will shape the next one hundred international women’s days, it is good to remember the lessons we have learned to advance the conditions for working women; in terms of women’s role within the family and women’s role as income earners. USAID’s fresh focus on monitoring and evaluation of development programs will help document how specific activities help bring women into the development process as equal partners and the impact this has on family welfare and economic development.
Dr. Tisch is a social scientist with 22 years project management and technical expertise including 17 years of project experience in Asia. Serves as home office director of the USAID Indonesia Changes for Justice project and the USAID Anti-Trafficking in Persons project. Dr. Tisch is a three-time USAID chief of party (Women’s Legal Rights Initiative; dot-GOV program; Farmer-to-Farmer Program Russia and Ukraine). She served as project manager for the e-government Knowledge Map for the World Bank InfoDev program, project leader for the USAID/ANE Bureau ASEAN ICT Enhancement project, and program leader for the Global Women’s Leadership Initiative (Atlantic Philanthropic Services).
In Ghana last week, I had the privilege to participate in the Africa Christian Health Associations’ 5th Biennial Conference, “Improving Women’s and Children’s Health in Africa.”
Christian Health Associations and networks from Africa and partner organizations met to take stock of their efforts in support of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and discuss opportunities to strengthen local capacity to deliver services for women and children.
USAID’s Bureau for Global Health has worked with numerous organizations to support the critical roles played by churches, mosques, synagogues and other faith networks in their broader communities. We have successfully empowered various faith-based leaders to speak openly in their respective communities about the crippling effects of HIV and AIDS and about the importance of planning one’s family and preventing children and families from falling ill and dying from malaria.
Last week, USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah delivered the David E. Barmes Global Health Lecture at the National Institutes of Health. Recounting the successes that have been achieved in recent decades in global health, Dr. Shah outlined the challenges that currently exist and set out a roadmap for USAID and the wider health community to take advantage of the window of opportunity in front of us to accomplish a new wave of successes that can dramatically improve health around the world, particularly for children under age five and women.
He said, “Our largest opportunities to improve human health do not lie in optimizing services to the 20 percent of people in the developing world currently reached by health systems; they lie in extending our reach to the 80 percent who lack access to health facilities.”
Partnerships with faith-based and community organizations are essential to reaching that 80 percent because faith communities provide critical health services — in some countries, faith groups operate anywhere from 25 to 50 percent of health facilities.
USAID has decades of experience in community-based work that takes health care out of fixed facilities and into the community.
Saving the lives of women and children requires a range of care that includes improving nutrition and training of birth attendants, who can help women give birth safely. It also requires increased access to family planning information and services and the widespread adoption of proven, inexpensive tools and key practices like rehydration liquids to combat diarrhea, immunizations for childhood diseases and vitamin supplements to fight malnutrition.
In September, President Obama signed the first-ever presidential policy directive on U.S. global development, elevating development — and with it global health — as a pillar of US foreign policy, along with diplomacy and defense. The Global Health Initiative embodies this new policy. It builds on the experience of the last decade, maximizing development impact and leveraging knowledge and human ingenuity.
As President Obama so ably put it, “When a child dies from a preventable disease, it shocks our conscience.”
There is no better time to act. The Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, launched by the UN Secretary-General in September, is an unprecedented effort to improve the lives of women and children in the developing world and meet the MDGs of reducing child mortality by two-thirds and maternal mortality by three-quarters by 2015.
With 2009’s change in political leadership in South Africa, we’ve seen a rapid scale-up of HIV/AIDS testing, treatment and prevention services. After years of neglect, we have a 17.8 percent adult HIV prevalence rate and 5.33 million adults and 330,000 children who are HIV positive, the largest in the world. And only 37 percent of people in need of treatment are receiving it.
As a South African, I was delighted to see my government putting so much energy and attention to saving the lives of the millions of people needing treatment. Then in 2009 Secretary Clinton announced a strategic initiative with the Government of South Africa to help accelerate scale up. Ambassador Goosby and the PEPFAR program committed to a one-time, two-year infusion of $110 million through USAID for PEPFAR’s Supply Chain Management System (SCMS) to purchase antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) on the international market at prices lower than those paid by the government of South Africa. PEPFAR South Africa and the SCMS team did a quick cost comparison of our prices versus the Government of South Africa’s prices and, working closely with our partners at the Ministry of Health, agreed on a list of ARVs for which we could get particularly competitive pricing.
Last year we completed the procurement of more than $70 million of the total $110 million with more than 7 million units of ARV’s being distributed to the provincial depots. Comparing our prices with those paid by previous South African procurements, we saved $61 million (46 percent) procuring generic ARV’s purchased at international prices. PEPFAR’s investment showed it was possible for the South African government to match international prices and set informal benchmarks for subsequent purchases.
In December, South Africa’s Minister of Health, Dr. Aaron Motsoaledi, announced success with South Africa’s own procurement of ARVs noting a “massive reduction in the prices of antiretroviral drugs which has resulted in the 53.1% reduction in the cost of the total tender which translates to a R4,7 billion [US$630 million] savings. The percentage decrease in the cost of each item ranges from 4% to 81% implies that South Africa can now afford to treat twice as many people on ARVs compared to that which was previously budgeted.”
By the end of this two-year initiative, PEPFAR’s investment of $110 million will have leveraged about $90 million in savings from SCMS’s procurement and a further $600 million for the South African government. That’s quite a return on investment.
An estimated 1.1 million people in Ethiopia are living with HIV/AIDS, which makes the country home to one of the largest populations of HIV-infected individuals in the world, according to UNAIDS. Ethiopia is also one of the poorest countries in the world; only four countries fare worse than Ethiopia on the UN Development Program’s Human Poverty Index.
For people living with HIV in Ethiopia, health care is not just about medicine. Without adequate nutrition, income, and social support, they are unable to complete their treatments and stay healthy. The videos below show how U.S. support is comprehensively addressing the needs of HIV-positive individuals and their communities.
Follow Shewarged Kassa, an HIV-positive case worker, as she visits and counsels patients unable to travel to the local health center for treatment.
Visit the pastures near Addis Ababa, where HIV-positive dairy farmers are benefiting from improved livelihoods and a renewed sense of self-worth.
In fiscal year 2010, Ethiopia received over $320 million in U.S. HIV/AIDS funding. Through the President’s Emergency Plan for HIV/AIDS Relief, in 2010 in Ethiopia, over 200,000 people received life-saving treatment, more than six million received counseling and testing, and millions more were reached by prevention programs.