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Using Photography to Evaluate Project Impact

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. During this time IMPACT will highlight USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence.

As researchers, it is sometimes easy to become engrossed in the mechanics of the research process – fretting over sample size, quality control, response bias and other technicalities. Admittedly, there are moments when we fail to really “see” the actual people our research strives to help.

My colleague Jeffrey Edmeades and I were reminded of this while in Ethiopia’s Amhara region for a project working to improve the lives and future opportunities for child brides in the region. Called TESFA, which means “hope” in Amharic, the project was implemented by CARE Ethiopia, evaluated by the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and funded by the Nike Foundation. TESFA gave young, married, extremely marginalized girls unprecedented opportunities to learn about their health, to interact with their peers, and to participate in the social, economic and political life of their families and communities.

A young married girl is learning how to use a camera during the first day of a week long Participatory Research Activity using the  Photovoice method. She, along with nine other program participants were asked to use photography to document their lives and the impact the TESFA program had on them. Photo credit: Robin Hayes

A young married girl is learning how to use a camera during the first day of a week long Participatory Research Activity using the Photovoice method. She, along with nine other program participants were asked to use photography to document their lives and the impact the TESFA program had on them. Photo credit: Robin Hayes

Most of the more than 5,000 girls we worked with over the three-year project had similar stories: Married off by their parents at nine, 14, 16, to much older men – strangers, really. Forced to drop out of school. Frightening, unwanted first sexual encounters.

Because of the remarkable similarity in their experiences, it was at times easy to fall into viewing these girls – our “research subjects”– as a large, homogenous group. Our experience in Ethiopia reminded us how critical it is not to have such a lens, but rather, to see participants as the individuals they are. We found that giving greater prominence to the individual experiences of program beneficiaries – in their own voices – illuminated our research and evaluation processes.

Specifically, during the final year of TESFA, we implemented the Photovoice strategy, which gives marginalized communities an opportunity to represent themselves through photography, as an element of program evaluation. It can also serve as a tool for advocacy and policy change. If adapted into a program, it can also become part of the intervention itself, where participants can gain confidence and communication skills to speak up about their lives.

We trained ten girls in the mechanics and ethics of photography, and for five days in April 2013, they used donated digital cameras to document their days and the impact the program had on their lives. Their images are beautiful and revealing. Accompanied by the girls’ descriptions, the photos helped us see the aspects of the program that they most valued.

Our research findings support much of what Photovoice revealed. Among them: Young wives reported much more communication with their husbands. Girls’ management of household finances improved and couples experienced greater financial security. Girls’ knowledge about their sexual and reproductive health increased significantly. And they were using contraceptives at a higher rate than before they became involved in TESFA.

Using participatory research methods like Photovoice to complement traditional approaches can lead to a richer understanding of programs’ outcomes. For beneficiaries like the child brides we worked with in Ethiopia – and other often overlooked groups – it can provide an unprecedented opportunity to build confidence and skills. And, to really be seen.

Robin Hayes is an Independent research consultant and Social Justice photographer who was part of the TESFA research team at ICRW. Jeffrey Edmeades also contributed to this blog. Edmeades is a senior social demographer who directed ICRW’s evaluation of the TESFA project.

Next 16 Days Blog Post: A Courageous Journey
Previous 16 Days Blog Post: New Evidence on Child Marriage Prevention in Ethiopia

From the Field in Montenegro: Rebuilding Trust Is No Fiction for the Country’s Biggest Court

A judge is preparing for a trial scheduled for the next day, and he needs the case file. His office is tiny, crammed with binders and documents, so he first looks on the floor behind him. He thinks he remembers the color of the file — yes, he remembers putting a yellow sticker it on it — but somehow he cannot find it. He goes into the corridor, where he can hardly walk among the piles of files. He spends some time scanning the cases, but in vain. Then he sees his assistant. “Can you please help me find the case file? You know, the 11-year-old girl’s case? I put a sticker on it, remember?”

“Oh, judge, you forgot again,”the assistant says. “I told you to keep the most urgent case files in our kitchenette!”

Although this story is fiction, it could have been a typical day in the Basic Court in Podgorica before USAID’s Rule of Law project knocked on the door of this court, the largest in Montenegro.

And the situation was not fiction for citizens coming to the court; they didn’t know where to go, whom to ask, or where to find the courtrooms. They only seemed to meet angry court staff in the corridors, and none seemed willing to help them. The judges were usually cranky, lugging huge case files into their offices because there were no proper archives. Actually, the “archives” were the corridor floors.

The Basic Court in Podgorica—receiving more than half of the country’s cases—deserved better. To begin with, USAID helped it look like a real court. Working with the court’s staff, USAID refurbished the main reception area, where citizens are now welcomed by knowledgeable staff stationed at information desks. New LCD screens display the schedule of hearings, along with courtroom numbers and assigned judges. The entire courthouse was renovated, from registry offices to the public restrooms. The building now looks more respectable, but even more important, the effort has led to increased public trust in the justice dispensed by the court.

When I met Basic Court judge and spokesperson Ibrahim Smailovic in the renovated reception area, the element he emphasized most was not immediately visible to an outsider. “Through this project,” he told me, “a lot has been done about the quality of the relationship between the court and citizens. Being better informed and being able to get things done quickly, I think citizens now have more trust in what we do here, and I hope they have more trust in the whole judicial system of Montenegro.”

Judge Smailovic would probably laugh about my fictional story at the beginning of this blog, and rightfully so, because he is aware how close it was to reality and how it illustrates the strides the Basic Court of Podgorica has made with USAID support.

Renovations to the courthouse and its archives were completed shortly before Montenegro graduated from USAID assistance in late 2013. Weeks before the Mission closed, Judge Smailovic stepped before a film crew’s cameras to speak about the strides the Basic Court had made. “Through USAID assistance, Montenegro now has a more transparent, responsive judiciary and government,” he said with pride.

USAID’s Good Governance Activity streamlined operations at the Basic Court of Podgorica and the Municipality of Cetinje as part of its efforts to develop transparent, responsive government institutions. The video below shows how USAID improved government services in the country’s largest court and made doing business easier in Montenegro’s old royal capital.

New Evidence on Child Marriage Prevention in Ethiopia

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. During this time IMPACT will highlight USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence.

Defined as a formal marriage or informal union before the age of 18 years, child marriage is a practice that increases a girl’s risk of school dropout, maternal mortality, short birth intervals, vulnerability to gender-based violence, and poor mental health, among other adverse outcomes. Estimates suggest that 1 in 3 girls in the developing world are married before the age of 18. In areas such as the Amhara Region of Ethiopia, the prevalence of child marriage (CM) is among the highest in the world, with 2009 estimates showing that 50% of girls were married before the age of 18.

To help address the needs of 50 million adolescents who are already married, USAID invested in programs through PEPFAR to reach more than 220,000 married adolescent girls in Amhara, Ethiopia with access to family planning, STI services, HIV services, financial literacy, and menstruation management.

To help combat child marriage before it happens, USAID invests in research to prevent CM in “hot spot” areas with high CM prevalence. In Amhara, Ethiopia, as well as hot spot regions of Tanzania and Burkina Faso, USAID is supporting an innovative five-arm study on the effectiveness and cost of community education, economic incentives, and educational support on delaying marriage among adolescent girls, compared to control communities not receiving interventions.

Join the conversation with @USAID on Twitter using #16days.

Join the conversation with @USAID on Twitter using #16days.

USAID promotes dissemination and use of new evidence on effective strategies for child marriage prevention. A 2013 study (PDF) published by Anastasia Gage, supported under the USAID-funded MEASURE Evaluation project, sheds new light on how exposure to behavior change communication (BCC) affects knowledge and attitudes on CM among parents and guardians in Amhara Region. Although parents and guardians often decide when and who a girl marries, little data exists on effective strategies to change CM attitudes and knowledge among these gatekeepers.

Results from Gage’s study show that almost all parents were exposed to CM prevention messages from 1-2 communication channels.  Social influence was important to parents. Parents who believed their communities disapproved of CM were more likely to believe that marriage before age 18 was too early and that their daughters had the right to choose their own partner. By addressing parental attitudes and perceptions, programs can change social norms around child marriage. Future BCC campaigns on CM prevention should address the role of social influence on parental behaviors and attitudes and reinforce the health, economic, and educational benefits of delayed marriage. Evaluations of BCC programs should include a comparison group, monitor interventions for coverage, and measure changes in behaviors and practices.

USAID continues to support data collection on CM. Since 1984, the Agency has funded more than 260 Demographic and Health (DHS) surveys, which allow for identification of areas with the highest prevalence of CM. USAID supports rigorous evaluations of conditional cash transfer programs to delay CM among girls in India and Bangladesh, countries that account for the largest number of child brides in the world.

Learn more about USAID’s policies to address CM in Ending Child Marriage and Meeting the Needs of Married Children: The USAID Vision for Action. This vision is part of a suite of interlinked gender policies including the U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to GBV Globally, the Gender Equality and Female Empowerment Policy, National Action Plan on Children in Adversity, Youth in Development Policy and National Action Plan on Women, Peace & Security.

Preparing Syrians for a Harsh Winter

An Arabic translation is available.

The crisis in Syria continues to escalate and 9.3 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance—more than 40 percent of the country’s total population. With winter fast approaching, these staggering numbers speak to the urgency of preparing Syrians for the upcoming cold weather.

A young Syrian boy receives a box of clothing at a USAID-supported distribution site. Photo credit: USAID Partner

A young Syrian boy receives a box of clothing at a USAID-supported distribution site. Photo credit: USAID Partner

Majd and his family are one of many receiving winter relief assistance from USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance. Intense fighting forced him to flee Homs with his wife, three-year-old son and elderly mother. When they reached safety in Tartous, they had nothing but each other and the clothing on their backs.

The family managed to find shelter in a small room of a shared compound housing several displaced Syrians, but this new ‘home’ was in no condition to protect them from a cold winter. It had no furniture, bed, or floor coverings, leaving them with nowhere to sleep but the hard, cold floor.

Due to the conflict, Majd had been out of work for close to a year. Left without any source of income, he was unable to buy even one blanket for his family. It was USAID partners that provided Majd with mattresses and extra blankets to help keep his family warm.

With many more people now in need since last year, the United States began preparing winter relief kits and coordinating distribution plans over the summer. Efforts to distribute thermal blankets, warm clothing and additional plastic sheeting for shelter will ramp up as the cold weather sets in.

USAID partners are also working to improve infrastructure in both camp and urban areas to provide people with adequate protection from winter weather elements.

The United States has accelerated its humanitarian response at every step to meet the increasing needs, having contributed more than $1.3 billion in humanitarian aid to date.

R.E.S.P.E.C.T Find Out What It Means To Us

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) throughDecember 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. During this time IMPACT will highlight USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence.

It is no accident that Aretha Franklin’s rendering of “Respect” rapidly became an anthem for marginalized and disenfranchised individuals and groups. The denial of human rights, particularly the most basic rights, such as respect, touches on a universal chord.

In recent years, global attention has been growing surrounding the horrifying issue of disrespect and abuse of women during childbirth.

Indonesia Maternal Health

USAID’s presence in Indonesia has been vital to the success of various health initiatives. The Blue Circle campaign of the 1980s and the Bidan Delima program in 2005 are just two examples of these initiatives that made it possible for women, like those pictured waiting in line, to receive maternal and child health and family planning services at community health centers. Photo credit: USAID/Indonesia

Think about the treatment you, or your wife, sister or daughter, expect from your maternity care provider. He or she is responsible for helping you (or your partner) give birth safely. Can you imagine a doctor scolding you for not using family planning to control your fertility? Or being separated from your newborn because you don’t have enough money to pay the discharge bill? Or giving birth unclothed while visitors walk by?

In both developing and developed countries around the world, pregnant women experience disrespect that ranges from subtle denial of their autonomy to blatant abuse. Numerous studies (PDF) document physical abuse in childbirth, including slapping, restraining, suturing without pain medication, or forcibly pushing on a woman’s abdomen. For women carrying or at high risk for HIV, the fear of stigma and discrimination from providers is often compounded by stigma from partners and families, especially regarding HIV testing or positive status disclosure.

This lack of respectful care also deters many women from seeking hospital care; instead they choose to give birth at home without the care of a skilled health attendant. This increases the change of complications from childbirth, possibly causing death.

While some may blame healthcare providers, many of these providers are working under suboptimal conditions, with many being overworked, underpaid, and burdened with unmanageable caseloads. The lack of empowerment, dignity, and security for midwives and nurses is driven by deep-rooted attitudes derived from gender, class, caste, race and cultural norms towards women. These problems undermine the resilience of midwives and nurses and negatively impact their capacity to provide quality care.

What does respect for women giving birth mean? The Universal Rights of Childbearing Women Charter (PDF) clearly outlines what respect means; certainly it includes the physical safety of pregnant women, but it also includes the respect for women’s basic human rights, including respect for women’s choices, preferences, feelings, and autonomy. It also means addressing the conditions of healthcare providers.

To eliminate the humiliation and abuse of women in childbirth, USAID supports the White Ribbon Alliance to lead global and country level advocacy and the University Research Corporation TRAction Project (PDF) to carry out implementation research to assess the prevalence of disrespect and abuse and test approaches to decrease these behaviors. With USAID funding, the Jhpiego/MCHIP Project has developed a comprehensive Respectful Maternity Toolkit available throughout the world. Furthermore, USAID is partnering with the World Health Organization to review the evidence on the status and working conditions of midwives and address the disrespect and abuse of women in childbirth.

We see the need for increased awareness and support for civil society engagement and advocacy, and the need to work with all involved in the direction, management and provision of care to women giving birth. Global initiatives, such as the Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health, are key opportunities to realize these basic human rights.

Until recently, this was a problem hidden behind a veil of silence. Now we hear the silence being broken across the globe, but it is just a start.  Women’s voices need to be heard. And all of us need to respond to promote social justice and improve quality of care. Women’s lives depend on it.

Meeting the Needs of Children and Adolescents Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence

From November 25th (International End Violence Against Women Day) through December 10th (International Human Rights Day), USAID joins the international community for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. The blog below highlights USAID’s work to combat gender-based violence and celebrates ten years of our HIV and AIDS work under PEPFAR in advance of World AIDS Day (December 1).

Ruth was doing “okay,” with the help of her HIV medication and the friends she had made in a local support group for people living with HIV. With a shy smile, Ruth told me that she was getting by, but she missed her two young daughters. Her nine-year-old, Sarah, had been raped a year before and was now at a recovery center with her sister, who stayed with her for company. “She still hasn’t spoken, but she is getting better,” Ruth said with a sad smile.

In Swaziland, just before sunset, a young girl tests out a new seesaw on a playground built by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation at the Mkhulamini Clinic. Photo credit: Jon Hrusa, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation

In Swaziland, just before sunset, a young girl tests out a new seesaw on a playground built by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation at the Mkhulamini Clinic. Photo credit: Jon Hrusa, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation

Like many single mothers, Ruth worked during the day doing laundry and chores for other families. A male neighbor took advantage of her daughter when she was home alone. The attack had been so brutal that her daughter had been in the hospital for over a month. With the help of friends, Ruth made sure the man was arrested and prosecuted. It had been hard. The time spent on the case had left little time to earn income. Ruth’s family was struggling, but people were helping. She had hope that things would get better, and that her daughter would recover.

Ruth’s story and her courage epitomize the struggle to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Treatment is a miracle, but the true test of our resolve to end AIDS lies in our commitment to end the inequities of gender, of rich and poor, of powerful and vulnerable.

Girls, often marginalized by age and social status, are at a particularly high risk. Globally, young women aged 15-24 are the most vulnerable to HIV and account for 22 percent (PDF) of all new HIV infections (twice as high as young men). Furthermore, an estimated 150 million girls have experienced some form of gender-based violence before age 18. But this is not just limited to girls. According to the World Report on Violence Against Children (PDF), an estimated 73 million boys globally have also experienced sexual violence before age 18. Such violence has severe consequences for their immediate and long-term health and well-being, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections such as HIV, reproductive and sexual health complications, alcohol and drug abuse, and psychosocial health issues. In addition, results from the PEPFAR Sexual Gender Based Violence Initiative showed that when sexual assault services were introduced to primary health centers, a large percentage of patients presenting for care were under 18, but services were not tailored to meet their unique needs.

USAID, as a key implementing agency of PEPFAR, has a strong commitment to addressing the unique needs and vulnerabilities of children and adolescents experiencing sexual violence, including addressing the gender-related factors that underlie such violence. The recently launched guide, Clinical Management of Children and Adolescents Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence: Technical Considerations for PEPFAR Programs, offers step-by-step technical advice for clinicians, social workers, pediatricians, child protection workers, HIV specialists and others on appropriate clinical care and management. These technical considerations are meant to serve as a starting point for national level adaptation and development of comprehensive, integrated services for children.

As we travel down the road to an AIDS-free generation, we hope that stories like that of Ruth’s daughter dwindle into extinction. In the meantime, for those children that are afflicted by such unspeakable sexual violence, we pledge to continue serving their unique needs and vulnerabilities.

USAID in the News

US News and World Report reported on USAID’s contributions to the relief effort in the Philippines following the destruction of Typhoon Haiyan. The article focuses on USAID’s decision to purchase food directly from local Filipino distributors—a choice which will not only ease the logistical complications of getting supplies to the areas where they are needed, but also inject cash into the Philippine economy at a time when it is greatly needed. Jeremy Konyndyk, director of the U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance program at USAID, said, “We’re getting to a point where we can start thinking about recovery aspects, but we don’t want to declare victory prematurely. The destruction in those coastal areas was near total.”

This photo was taken in hard-hit Tacloban, where USAID, working with UNICEF, has helped repair the municipal water system. Photo credit:  IOM/J. Lowry

This photo was taken in hard-hit Tacloban, where USAID, working with UNICEF, has helped repair the municipal water system. Photo credit: IOM/J. Lowry

Thomas Reuters Foundation featured a story that examined the USAID relief efforts in the Philippines in the light of lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The piece quotes USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah saying that the Philippines’ “strong, capable central government” will help avoid problems in the reconstruction process. “To get reconstruction investment back into the (Philippines) economy and rebuild these communities will take a longer amount of time and will have to be very strategic and focused. But it will require very strong leadership from the government of Philippines and we expect we will see that,” said Shah.

GMA News reported on the scale of USAID’s relief operations for victims of Typhoon Haiyan, quoting Al Dwyer, the head of the Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) at USAID, who said that the current effort in the Philippines “is much greater than what we have ever done in the past.” The U.S. is working with other countries to coordinate the response, and has donated at least $47 million in humanitarian assistance and sent 2.6 million food parcels thus far.

Another piece from GMA News focused on the $10 million that was pledged earlier in the week by the U.S. government to help restore clean water in Tacloban City and provide support to the logistical operations. USAID Assistant Administrator of Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance Nancy E. Lindborg said that the funding “will allow much-needed relief supplies to reach to hard-hit areas and ensure that 200,000 people in and around Tacloban have clean running water.”

Devex reported on a speech given by Administrator Shah at Brookings Institution, which outlined the agency’s new three-part commitment to helping end extreme poverty. The approach will focus on public-private partnerships, country programs that demand mutual accountability and disaster-prone, fragile areas and communities. In the speech, Shah expressed that a focus on fragile areas must be better informed by an understanding of what results investment in these areas can be expected to produce.

Spy Ghana covered USAID scholarship awards to prospective students through the USAID West Africa Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Program at the University for Development Studies in Tamale. The scholarships will support 30 students at six universities in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Niger who wish to pursue master’s degrees in the fields of soil and water conservation, innovation communications, development studies, and science.

Dhaka Tribune featured a piece on the USAID Bengal Tiger Conservation Activity partnership with WildTeam focused on conserving the rich biodiversity of Bangladesh, particularly the Royal Bengal Tiger. The effort, named the Bagh Project, will devote approximately $13 million to wildlife conservation efforts through reducing illegal trafficking, minimizing human-wildlife conflict, enhancing outreach and engagement, and improving livelihoods for conservation.

Fostering Leadership to Eliminate Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Nigeria

USAID is observing World AIDS Day this year by celebrating ten years of ourHIV and AIDS work under PEPFAR.

More than 85,000 infants in Nigeria are at risk of HIV transmission from their mothers every year. While the number of HIV-positive pregnant women who receive antiretroviral treatment (ART) is increasing, robust efforts to improve coverage are needed if national targets (PDF) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) are to be met in 2015.

Keziah Samaila, coordinator of PMTCT in Township Clinic, Nigeria, training women on Family Planning and HIV. Photo: Lourdes de la Peza

Keziah Samaila, coordinator of PMTCT in Township Clinic, Nigeria, training women on Family Planning and HIV. Photo: Lourdes de la Peza

Over the past year, the Leadership, Management and Governance (LMG) Project helped support the PLAN-Health Nigeria project, funded by PEPFAR through USAID and managed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH), to pilot Leadership Development Program Plus (LDP+), which focuses on empowering teams to improve PMTCT results. The program also emphasizes new approaches tied in to country ownership, national health priorities, and specific health indicators.

LDP+ was piloted in the town of Gwagwalada, Nigeria. The Gwagwalada Council is one of the five Local Government Area Councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. LMG and PLAN-Health worked with the Gwagwalada Council, which selected 20 participants—two from each of the 10 facilities providing PMTCT services in the area—to form 10 teams to participate in the LDP+. Together, the teams decided to address PMTCT and focused on improving some standard indicators such as number of new antenatal care (ANC) clients; number of pregnant women tested for HIV, counseled and received their results; and the number of HIV-positive women. The program ran from October 2012 to May 2013. During this time, the teams worked within their facilities to create a vision of improved results around PMTCT, align stakeholders around this vision, implement their action plans, and share learning with other teams to identify the most useful local interventions and activities. The teams also received coaching in the areas of monitoring, evaluation, and reporting.

Keziah Samaila from Township Clinic, left, and Joy Otuokere, right, from Zuba Health Center, singing during the LDP+ training in Gwagwalada, Nigeria. Photo: Lourdes de la Peza

Keziah Samaila from Township Clinic, left, and Joy Otuokere, right, from Zuba Health Center, singing during the LDP+ training in Gwagwalada, Nigeria. Photo: Lourdes de la Peza

Most of the facilities reported encouraging results for their key indicators after participating in LDP+. For example, the Old Kutunku Health Center reported an increase from 17 to 61 new ANC clients per month. At the Gwako health center, the percentage of ANC clients who delivered in a health facility increased from 18 to 42 percent. Prior to LDP+, the Township clinic counseled and tested the partners of only three percent of pregnant women, compared with 20 percent after the program.

Alfa Ndatsu from Gwako Health Center, presenting his team work on the challenge model during LDP+ training. Photo: Lourdes de la Peza

Alfa Ndatsu from Gwako Health Center, presenting his team work on the challenge model during LDP+ training. Photo: Lourdes de la Peza

The Gwagwalada Council’s oversight committee plans to continue the program with its own resources, expanding it to another eight facilities in the area. Through these efforts, this local government agency is furthering Nigeria’s national efforts to ultimately eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Follow @USAIDGH on Twitter through World AIDS Day, observed on December 2, for key facts, resources, and photos from our programs and partners and join the conversation using the hashtag #WAD2013.

Entrepreneurs Spur Sustainable Growth and Contribute to Development Outcomes

Today, USAID celebrates National Entrepreneurship Day.

Entrepreneurs, both large and small, create jobs and spur sustainable growth that delivers benefits to people in the United States and around the world. Having spent part of my early career working to encourage investment in promising entrepreneurs throughout Africa, I’ve seen firsthand the transformations that can take place in peoples’ lives and communities when we help foster strong cultures of entrepreneurship.

In the lead up to Global Entrepreneurship Week, a worldwide celebration of innovators and job creators, USAID has partnered with other U.S. Government agencies to highlight the ways we can work with entrepreneurs to help them realize success. Every day, entrepreneurs in developing countries drive economic growth, create jobs, and contribute to development outcomes in USAID priority sectors including food security, global health, and access to energy.

Development Innovation Ventures grantee Off-Grid: Electric's entrepreneurs are lighting up Tanzania through more reliable, affordable, and sustainable electrical services. Photo Credit: Matthieu Young

Development Innovation Ventures grantee Off-Grid: Electric’s entrepreneurs are lighting up Tanzania through more reliable, affordable, and sustainable electrical services. Photo Credit: Matthieu Young

USAID recognizes the value in supporting entrepreneurs who advance market-based solutions using sustainable business models. Particularly in this current fiscal climate, enabling entrepreneurs to deliver development results that are sustainable beyond ongoing donor support is one of the best ways to leverage USAID funding. As a donor, our role is to help remove barriers that stand in the way of entrepreneurs starting and scaling their businesses, while also addressing market failures that limit the inclusion of poor and vulnerable populations. Our investments address common challenges facing entrepreneurs such as a lack of access to capital; limited availability of technical assistance, mentoring and peer networks; and a lack of awareness among investors regarding investment-ready enterprises.

Since 2010, the United States has budgeted about $4 billion annually to support programs related to entrepreneurship globally. USAID—particularly the Office of Innovation and Development Alliance, or what we call IDEA—has been proud to be a part of this ongoing commitment.

For instance, USAID is launching the Partnering to Accelerate Entrepreneurship (PACE) initiative to support entrepreneurial ventures that have the potential to lift some of the poorest communities in the world out of poverty. USAID will direct up to $10 million over the next three years to help develop the entrepreneurial ecosystem and scale enterprises in developing countries that offer market-based solutions in areas like food security, global health, and energy access. Today, USAID launched an open call for partnership concept papers (PDF) , inviting organizations to submit ideas on ways to partner and co-invest with USAID.

USAID also recently announced a new $4.1 million Global Development Alliance with Echoing Green, Newman’s Own Foundation, General Atlantic, Pershing Square Foundation, and Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors. Called “Priming the Pump,” the partnership will invest in young social entrepreneurs in developing countries who are pioneering innovative new solutions to major development challenges.

These are just two examples of some of the USAID initiatives designed to harness the power of entrepreneurs to advance global development that we have forthcoming. Additional fantastic entrepreneurship efforts coming out of USAID include:

  • USAID’s forthcoming partnership with Yunus Social Business (YSB) to promote entrepreneurship and the development of “social businesses” in vulnerable and underserved communities around the world and to collaborate on the development of social business incubator funds in a targeted set of developing countries
  • The USAID-Skoll Innovation Investment Alliance, a Global Development Alliance with the Skoll Foundation and Mercy Corps, identifies and invests in innovative social entrepreneurs to enable them to scale up their business models for delivering sustainable impact in areas such as education, climate change, water, and food security.  The first organization supported through the partnership, Imazon, uses the latest mapping technology and satellite imagery to help local governments in Brazil stop illegal deforestation in the Amazon.
  • Development Innovation Ventures (DIV) is an investment platform that finds, tests, and scales new solutions to development challenges around the world.  DIV is currently investing in over 80 entrepreneurial solutions in eight sectors and 27 countries around the world. Many of these solutions are almost elegant in their simplicity. For example, DIV is supporting Georgetown University researchers who are using stickers, like the kind my daughters are always putting on their notebooks, to reduce road deaths in Kenya. DIV is also working with the U.K.’s Department for International Development (DFID) on a multilateral global investment platform called GDIV that builds on DIV’s success in supporting breakthrough solutions to global development challenges.

As we embark on Global Entrepreneurship Week, I look forward to not only learning about the impactful work of emerging social enterprises, but continuing to develop new ways USAID and the U.S. Government can partner to bring these game changers to scale.

Learn more about USAID’s Partnering to Accelerate Entrepreneurship (PACE) initiative.

Visit USAID on LinkedIn to read “My First Job” stories from USAID employees, partners and beneficiaries. Share your story on Twitter using #GEW2013!

10 Years in the Making: Celebrating USAID’s Achievements Under PEPFAR

USAID is observing World AIDS Day this year by celebrating ten years of our HIV and AIDS work under PEPFAR.

In less than two short weeks, the global health community will unite to commemorate the fight against AIDS. The United States, foreign governments, civil society, local communities and many others dedicated to reaching an AIDS-free generation will mobilize around the world to celebrate the incredible achievements that have been made since the epidemic was first identified over 30 years ago.

We’ve come a long way in the last three decades: unexplained immune system failure and a race to identify the cause in the early 1980s; life-sustaining therapy introduced in the mid-1990s; a landmark foreign assistance initiative in 2003 that brought treatment to millions of people who had no access before; and a groundbreaking study in 2011 showing that healthy people living with HIV on antiretrovirals can limit transmission by 96 percent. The worldview of the HIV pandemic has changed dramatically in our lifetime.

The Building Local Capacity Project has reached 57,223 orphans and vulnerable children (OCV) and caregivers with child health services in southern Africa. Photo credit: Management Sciences for Health

The Building Local Capacity Project has reached 57,223 orphans and vulnerable children (OCV) and caregivers with child health services in southern Africa. Photo credit: Management Sciences for Health

Our work is not over. As Secretary of State John Kerry said during a speech earlier this year, “As progress continues, we will gradually evolve as our fight against this disease evolves, and that is going to happen both by necessity and by design. Achieving an AIDS-free generation is a shared responsibility and it is going to be a shared accomplishment.”

Some of the most monumental achievements in combating HIV and AIDS have occurred in the past 10 years with the creation of two unprecedented global health programs – the Global Fund Against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). PEPFAR was, and continues to be, ambitious, visionary, and far-reaching. Through access to antiretroviral treatment, it has literally brought people living with HIV back from the brink of death and enabled them to live long and healthy lives.

It’s been ten years since the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003 was passed into law, creating PEPFAR. And today, we can confidently say that the program has saved millions of lives and delivered hope to communities where it was so desperately needed.

As a key implementing agency, USAID has contributed significantly to these remarkable achievements. Through programs that prevent mother-to-child transmission, offer voluntary medical male circumcision and improve condom use, to those that reduce gender-based violence and risky behaviors for select populations; through our commitment to deliver effective treatments and care for the most vulnerable – especially orphans and other affected children – to our support for the development of an HIV vaccine, USAID has played a significant role in changing the face of the pandemic around the world.

In the 10 days leading up to World AIDS Day  - through a digital campaign called 10 for 10 (PDF) – USAID will share stories from the last decade that touch on the various ways the agency has contributed to one of the most successful foreign assistance programs ever created. This campaign will culminate in the launch of “Gift’s Last Ten Years” – an animated video that tells the story of our work through the eyes of a fictional 10-year old southern African girl.

AIDS used to be a disease that everyone feared and discussed only in private. Today, there is a global sense of optimism that did not seem possible at the beginning of this century. What a difference a decade makes – we’re proud to have played our part.

Follow @USAIDGH on Twitter through World AIDS Day, observed on December 2, for key facts, resources, and photos from our programs and partners and join the conversation using the hashtag #WAD2013.

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