USAID Impact Photo Credit: USAID and Partners

Archives for Health

USAID Commends Major Advance in HIV Prevention Research

Results released today from the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx) study confirmed that daily oral use of a combination antiretroviral (ARV), Truvada, reduced the risk of HIV infection by 44 percent among men who have sex with men. This historic iPrEx trial provides the first proof of concept that oral PrEP of an ARV can prevent HIV transmission.

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) congratulates the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology-UCSF, and most importantly, the 2,499 pioneering participants who volunteered for this important clinical trial on the promising results from iPrEx.  Global iPrEx is the first large efficacy study to evaluate the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in men who have sex with men in Africa, Asia, and North and South America.

These promising results also encourage other research partners to continue working on more PrEP and microbicide options which may lead to new tools for HIV prevention.  The AIDS pandemic calls for a dynamic variety of HIV prevention methods to ensure those at risk have choices to use the one that best suits the needs of their lifestyle.

According to new UNAIDS estimates, women worldwide account for more than half of all HIV infections, and in sub-Saharan Africa continue to bear the brunt of the AIDS epidemic, USAID will continue critical research and development work in PrEP for women at high risk.  The FemPrEP clinical trial—led by FHI with support from USAID—is designed to test the safety and effectiveness of a daily dose of Truvada for HIV prevention.  Close to 4,000 HIV-negative women who are at higher risk of HIV are being enrolled in five sites in four countries: Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe; results are expected 2012.

Based on the positive results from the CAPRISA 004 trial which were released in July, USAID will continue to support the regulatory approval of 1% tenofovir gel after further confirmation of its effectiveness.  USAID is committed to ensuring the launch of a new generation of products designed expressly for women and capable of preventing the transmission of HIV.

Finding a woman-controlled method of prevention is critical in the fight against HIV/AIDS.  In line with President Obama’s Global Health Initiative, USAID is committed to focusing on the needs of women and girls in its health programming worldwide.

USAID continues to build on a solid foundation of robust science and new technologies, enabling innovation to redefine and strengthen U.S. development assistance globally.

Up Close and Personal With Our Global Health

I recently traveled to Senegal, Ethiopia, and Mozambique to visit a wide range of global health programs supported by USAID and other U.S. Government Agencies including the Centers for Disease Control, Department of Defense, and the Peace Corps.

My colleague, Zeke Emanuel, from the White House Office of Management and Budget, blogged extensively during this two-week trip about President Obama’s Global Health Initiative.  This whole-of-government effort encourages a more integrated approach to global health — building upon historic efforts under the Bush Administration through PEPFAR and PMI with a renewed focus on child and maternal health, TB and other diseases.  It also strengthens health systems to ultimately save more lives.

Is funding for global health a never-ending waste of money in which billions are spent but nothing gets better? Or are we being selfish and grossly unethical, because we are unwilling to spend a few hundred dollars more per year in order to save a life of a poor person half way around the world?

These are tough questions, and Zeke addresses them in his first blog entry, now featured at The New Republic.

Democratic Republic of Congo Joins Malaria Initiative

On Tuesday, November 16th, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) became the 16th focus country of the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) and one of the most important. DRC is the second largest and third most populated country in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nearly 95 percent of the population – some 69 million people – live in malaria endemic areas and suffer nearly 30 million cases of this treatable and preventable disease. Malaria accounts for nearly half of the deaths of the 620,000 children in DRC who die before their fifth birthday.

The launch of PMI was held in Mbuji Mayi, capital city of East Kasai. Admiral Timothy Ziemer, U.S. Global Malaria Coordinator, U.S. Ambassador to DRC James Entwistle, and USAID Mission Director Stephen Haykin joined thousands of Congolese for the public launch of the program, which included distributing long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and preventive malaria treatment to pregnant women. Next year, PMI will procure 2 million LLINs to support the universal coverage strategy in Katanga Province, which is part of the National Malaria Control Program’s (NMCP) five-year strategic plan for universal coverage. PMI will procure another 645,000 LLINs for routine distribution in 112 health zones in the four provinces where USAID works, which will be part of the NMCP’s distribution plan for 2009-2014.

With its large population, geographic size, and heavy burden of malaria, the DRC presents a major challenge to reducing morbidity and mortality attributable to malaria in Africa. As with other PMI focus countries, the goal of PMI in the DRC will be to expand malaria control efforts to reach large areas of the country, achieving a 50 percent reduction in malaria burden by targeting those most vulnerable to malaria – children under the age of five and pregnant women. PMI will work with the NMCP to provide LLINs and antimalarial drugs, help strengthen health systems, and integrate malaria control and prevention activities with other health programs in 112 health zones in the four target provinces. PMI will also help identify and fill gaps in other malaria interventions in close collaboration with other partners, including donors, civil society organizations, faith-based groups, and the private sector.

Malaria prevention and treatment is a core component of the U.S. Government’s development policy and the Administration’s Global Health Initiative (GHI). Rather than attack diseases individually, GHI focuses on tying health programs together, creating an integrated and coordinated system of care. For example, PMI is expanding efforts to support health systems strengthening and to integrate with USAID’s maternal and child health (MCH) programs and the President’s Emergency Plan for HIV/AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Given that malaria control is essentially a maternal and child health program, PMI has been working to ensure that all its activities at the health facility level are integrated with the MCH program.

The Global Health Initiative and the President’s Malaria Initiative share a common focus on women — improving their health status benefits women, as well as their families and communities. By expanding women’s access to care, increasing the focus on women’s health outcomes, and incorporating women’s perspectives into health systems, the GHI and PMI will impact women, their children, and their families.

The United States Government has supported malaria control in DRC during the past 10 years as a key component of the health program supported by USAID in almost half of the country, including Katanga, South Kivu and East and West Kasai provinces. During the past two years, the DRC has conducted mass distribution of LLINs in Kinshasa, Equateur, Orientale and Maniema provinces. Similar campaigns are planned in Katanga and East and West Kasai in the near future. These life-saving bed nets are also being provided for routine distribution through antenatal and child health clinics. As a result of these programs, since 2008, nearly 30 million LLINS have been brought into the country by the government of the DRC and the donor community.

From the Field

In Pakistan, we will hand over medical equipment to 1500 female health workers.  These practitioners will receive a set of equipment to create makeshift health units and provide health services in flood-affected areas of Pakistan.

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, we will launch The President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI).  Under the 2008 Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde Global Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act (Lantos/Hyde Act) funding for PMI was expanded to two additional countries – DRC and Nigeria becoming the 16th and 17th focus-countries.

In the Philippines, we will hold a Clean Energy Business Plan Competition.  USAID will partner with the Private Financing Advisory Network (PFAN); a global public-private partnership that matches innovative clean energy projects with sources of financing.

Pic of the Week: Rapid Diagnostic Test for Malaria

(At left) Mr. Moussa Diagne, Entomologist with the Parasite Control Service in Senegal, performs a Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) for malaria on Dr. Zeke Emanuel, Special Advisor on Health Policy to the Director of the White House Office of Management and BudgetMr. Moussa Diagne (left), Entomologist with the Parasite Control Service in Senegal, performs a Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) for malaria on Dr. Zeke Emanuel, Special Advisor on Health Policy to the Director of the White House Office of Management and Budget, during the first leg of a three-country visit to health programs in Africa. RDTs, which were introduced in late 2007, have proven to be a more scientific method for identifying malaria cases. Last week, a report released by the international partnership Roll Back Malaria announced that in just one year, Senegal has managed to reduce the number of cases of malaria by 41%. Senegal is a focus country of the President’s Malaria Initiative. Photo is from Nicole Schiegg/USAID.

From the Field

In Mali, we will hold a launch ceremony for a new Maternal and Newborn Health collaboration framework.  Mali has been selected as one of the countries for the implementation of the joint Organisation of The Islamic Conference (OIC)-US Government ”Reaching Every Mother and Baby in the OIC with Emergency Care” strategy. USAID has been designated to lead this effort for the US Government.

In Egypt, we will celebrate forty-five new scholarships for young Egyptian students to obtain degrees from Egyptian private universities in fields of studies that are important to Egypt’s current and future development. The Leadership Opportunities Transforming University Students (LOTUS) program aims at identifying and empowering young women and men who have demonstrated academic excellence, leadership and involvement in their communities.  The program will help develop and nurture the recipients’ leadership potentials, skills and commitment to community and country so that they are prepared to become future leaders and advocates for development in local communities.

In Tanzania, it is Swahili Fashion Week.  On the last day of fashion week, USAID/COMPETE (East Africa Competitiveness and Trade Expansion Program) will organize a merchandising workshop to provide an element of training/guidance for what it takes to go commercial, and what the global market is looking for.

USAID joins NASA for the LAUNCH: Health Forum

There is a lot of excitement around Science, Technology, and Innovation at USAID right now.  This weekend is one of the reasons why.  I arrived this morning at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida with my USAID colleagues for the LAUNCH: Health Forum, which is at the cutting edge of USAID’s and the US Government’s efforts to foster innovation in science and technology.

USAID and our LAUNCH founding partners NASA, Nike, and the State Department created LAUNCH because we are seeking game-changing, scalable innovations.  For USAID, that often means low-cost, replicable technologies and models poised for impact across multiple regions in the developing world.  We are very excited about the group of LAUNCH: Health innovators we have convened.  They include, for example:

  • A no disposal, biodegradable “needle” for vaccinations/injections that does not require needle disposal or a cold chain (“BIONEEDLE”);
  • An extremely low-cost, portable device for administering eye exams in the developing world (“NETRA”);
  • A very low-cost mHealth platform that empowers community health workers to keep patient records and track patients via text messaging in remote, rural locations (“FrontLine SMS: Medic”).

Visit our website to see the full list of innovators and descriptions of their innovations.

The innovators will have the chance to engage in two days of collaboration with the LAUNCH Council, a world class group of entrepreneurs, venture capitalists, scientists, engineers, and leaders in government, media, and business.  We have assembled the Council to give individualized advice to the innovators and form a network that can help them accelerate their innovations in the near future. And, to indulge in a slightly immodest moment, we are proud to be bringing an all star USAID team to the LAUNCH Council.  The team includes Dr. Alex Dehgan, our Science and Technology Adviser to the Administrator; Amie Batson, our Deputy Assistant Administrator for Global Health; Wendy Taylor, Senior Adviser on Innovative Finance and Public-Private Partnerships in Global Health; and David Ferguson, Deputy Director of the Office of Science and Technology.

I feel truly privileged to be a part of LAUNCH, and I hope the LAUNCH: Health innovators will benefit as much from participating as we do.  We’re looking forward to collaborating with them and the council members to move these innovations toward impact.

Please follow LAUNCH this weekend and participate right along with us.  Portions of the conference will be viewable live at http://www.ustream.tv/channel/launch-health and you can follow Forum debate and brainstorming live throughout LAUNCH on NASA’s very cool MindMapr tool at http://mindmapr.nasa.gov.

Midwives from Afghanistan Gather for Capacity Building Training in Alexandria, Egypt

On October 21, USAID/Egypt Director James Bever and Dr. Hassan Sallam, Director of the Suzanne Mubarak Regional Center for Women’s Health and Development (SMC) participated in the graduation ceremony of a mix of 31 Afghan Midwives of various ages and from various provinces. The Midwives attended the training program at the SMC in Alexandria and it was funded through the Health Services Support Project, implemented by USAID/Afghanistan.

Afghan midwives with their Egyptian trainer at the end of the USAID/Afghanistan funded capacity building training held in Egypt. Photo Credit: USAID/Egypt

Afghan midwives with their Egyptian trainer at the end of the USAID/Afghanistan funded capacity building training held in Egypt. Photo Credit: USAID/Egypt

The SMC was selected as a training provider for its excellent results in the areas of women’s health and development in Egypt and in neighboring countries. The SMC is the lead partner organization for the USAID/Egypt funded Global Initiative for Breast Cancer Awareness. The training focused on the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to provide care to Afghani women with the ultimate goal of ensuring safe motherhood.

In his remarks during the event, the USAID/Egypt Director lauded Egypt as it has achieved its Millennium Development Goal Number 4 of reducing the under-five mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015 and it is approaching the achievement of MDG 5 in reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015.  “Egypt is now leveraging those achievements by hosting training programs like these where our Egyptian counterparts can share valuable lessons learned and effective practices with efficient health practitioners from Afghanistan to improve health not only in Egypt, but around the world.”

State Department to Host India Diaspora Conference

When people hear that I am a medical doctor and that I work for USAID, they often say that my heart is in the right place.  I correct them:  actually, my heart is in three places—America first, as I am now an American, but also India and Pakistan, where I grew up.

I was born in Pakistan, but as a young child I contracted polio at the age of ten months and was sent to India for treatment.  I spent much of my childhood and teen years in India. I did recover, but the disabling effects of polio had already set in. I had also discovered my calling in life to help others in need and my focus has been on women and children to improve their health status and survival.  I became a medical doctor and specialized in public health.

I have been fortunate to achieve that dream here in the States and, like so many others in the diaspora, knew I wanted to “give back”—both to my adopted country and to my “home” countries, India and Pakistan.  So I am especially excited that the State Department is hosting a gathering of the Indian American diaspora this afternoon, and I am honored to have been asked to participate in a panel on health.

The theme of today’s U.S.-India People-to-People Conference is “Building the Foundation for a Strong Partnership,” and it is an especially appropriate time given the new relationship that is forming between the U.S. and India.

Diaspora groups are natural partners for USAID.  They have unparalleled insight into their home country, as well as their adopted one.  And they have a passion for seeing good development in their home country, as well as seeing that their U.S. tax dollars are spent effectively and accountably.

It is no secret that, for too long, it has been difficult for small organizations, like many diaspora groups, to navigate the process of applying for USAID grants and contracts.  This is changing, as a result of the reforms currently being instituted at USAID.  As just one example, USAID’s Administrator Rajiv Shah recently launched Development Innovation Ventures, which will enable the Agency to work with a diverse set of partners to identify and scale up innovative solutions to development challenges.

I hope that this conference is the first of many to bring diaspora groups, the private sector, and the government together to address the issues that we all care so much about.

U.S.-India People to People Conference: Building the Foundation for a Strong Partnership

This originally appeared on Dipnote.

Tomorrow, the Department of State will host the U.S.-India People to People (P2P) Conference. Ahead of President Obama’s visit to India, this event will highlight the crucial role of Indian-Americans in the U.S.-India relationship. Secretary Clinton has been clear that connecting with all citizens, not just government officials, is essential to cultivating long-term relationships. While government cooperation remains essential, it is the myriad people-to-people connections that continue to define and further deepen the U.S.-India partnership.

The P2P conference will provide a grassroots discussion forum on four areas important to both countries: renewable energy, global health, education, and economic empowerment. By bringing together innovators and thinkers in these fields, this conference seeks to strengthen the personal networks that spark innovation. We aim to continue working with Indian Americans and others to strengthen and leverage such networks for the mutual benefit of both our countries. Tomorrow’s conference is only the start of our conversation, and we look forward to following up with all the conference attendees and participants.

You can stay connected to the conference by following the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs on Facebook and Twitter.

The People-To-People Conference will be hosted by the U.S. Department of State in cooperation with the Indian American Leadership Council (IALC) and the American India Foundation (AIF) in the Loy Henderson Auditorium from 12:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. on October 28, 2010. The program will consist of panel discussions related to the five pillars of the U.S.-India Strategic Dialogue, specifically Renewable Energy, Global Health, Education and Economic Empowerment. Under Secretary of State for Economic, Energy and Agricultural Affairs Robert D. Hormats will provide opening remarks. USAID Administrator Dr. Rajiv Shah will give the keynote address and Indian Ambassador to the U.S. Meera Shankar has been invited to give closing remarks. Other senior U.S. government officials will also be in attendance and participating in the various conference sessions. Click here for more information.

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