USAID Impact Photo Credit: USAID and Partners

Archives for Health

A Success: USAID’s Neglected Tropical Disease Program

There is a group of diseases you don’t hear much about but that has a terrible impact on more than 1 billion people around the world – that’s one sixth of the world’s population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified 13 of these as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and they include such dreaded illnesses as elephantiasis, leprosy, blinding trachoma, and intestinal worms.  Together, NTDs have a disproportionately large impact on poor and rural populations, causing severe illness, disfigurement, and disability. They also perpetuate poverty by reducing people’s ability to work and children’s intellectual and physical development.

Until recently, many countries were treating NTDs through separate, uncoordinated programs. However, pilot studies suggest that it is possible to integrate programs to control and treat seven of these diseases together by providing safe and effective drug treatments once or twice a year to all people in an affected community. This approach, which has been endorsed by WHO and is called mass drug administration (MDA), targets large, at-risk populations, rather than individuals, since NTDs tend to occur together in the same geographic area.  Pilot studies of MDAs of the seven targeted NTDs resulted in significant reductions of illness and transmission of these diseases and indicated that, though there were major challenges, integrating control programs was possible and could result in cost savings and efficiencies. However, it was not clear if integrated programs could be scaled up to the national level.

Fortunately, an opportunity arose to find out whether such programs could be successful. In 2006, an act of Congress authorized funding of national integrated NTD control programs in 15 countries over a five year period and USAID launched its NTD program that September. The NTD Program focuses on integrated control of the seven NTDs that can be treated through MDA: elephantiasis, (referred to by scientists as lymphatic filariasis), schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia), trachoma, onchocerciasis (river blindness), and three soil-transmitted helminthes (worms): roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm.  USAID’s NTD Program is one of the first global efforts to integrate existing disease-specific treatment programs to control these diseases.

A recent article in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene reviews the first three years of USAID’s NTD Program, during that time MDA programs had been implemented in seven countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Haiti, Mali, Niger, Sierra Leone, and Uganda) and the program was scaling up in five other countries.  Working with its prime contractor, RTI International, and in coordination with national NTD programs, USAID has provided funds to support the launch and scale up of integrated NTD programs. Through these programs, nearly 16 million people were treated during the first year; the number treated rose to 55 million people by the third year, proving the feasibility of the integrated approach.  USAID’s NTD Program was able to treat millions of people by tapping into existing networks, including ministries of health, schools, non-governmental organizations, which together provide the program with greater efficiency and long-term sustainability as well as strengthen the capacity of national programs.

Remarkably, most of the drugs distributed to treat all these people – 222 million treatments during the first three years – were provided through public-private partnerships between the national NTD programs and major drug donors: GlaxoSmithKline; Johnson & Johnson; Merck & Co., Inc.; and Pfizer.  The estimated value of the drugs donated during the first three years totaled more than $1.4 billion.

The article points out that, while there continues to be technical and political challenges, USAID’s NTD Program exceeded expectations during its first three years, demonstrating the feasibility and cost effectiveness of scaling up integrated NTD program to the national level.  It is now clear that with proper support, integrated NTD control programs, following WHO guidelines, can be implemented in other countries, relieving the terrible burden of these diseases for millions of people around the world.

Beyond ARVs: Comprehensive HIV Interventions in Ethiopia

An estimated 1.1 million people in Ethiopia are living with HIV/AIDS, which makes the country home to one of the largest populations of HIV-infected individuals in the world, according to UNAIDS.  Ethiopia is also one of the poorest countries in the world; only four countries fare worse than Ethiopia on the UN Development Program’s Human Poverty Index.

For people living with HIV in Ethiopia, health care is not just about medicine.  Without adequate nutrition, income, and social support, they are unable to complete their treatments and stay healthy.  The videos below show how U.S. support is comprehensively addressing the needs of HIV-positive individuals and their communities.

Follow Shewarged Kassa, an HIV-positive case worker, as she visits and counsels patients unable to travel to the local health center for treatment.

Visit the pastures near Addis Ababa, where HIV-positive dairy farmers are benefiting from improved livelihoods and a renewed sense of self-worth.

In fiscal year 2010, Ethiopia received over $320 million in U.S. HIV/AIDS funding.  Through the President’s Emergency Plan for HIV/AIDS Relief, in 2010 in Ethiopia, over 200,000 people received life-saving treatment, more than six million received counseling and testing, and millions more were reached by prevention programs.

Empowering Youth in India

By: Laura Rodriguez, USAID

At the age of 17, Ishita Chaudhry recalls watching violent riots in her home country of India and being struck by the lack of political will and voice that her fellow peers had in decision making.  It was 2002.  Ishita was a senior in high school and suddenly became motivated to do something. She founded The YP Foundation (TYPF),  now the biggest youth-led organization in India, a country in which 315 million people or 31 percent of the population is under the age of 24.

Youth empowerment is a key message for all of the YP Foundation's programs. Photo Credit: Shiv Ahuja/YP Foundation

The YP Foundation’s mission is to empower young people to address health and rights, gender and sexuality, HIV/AIDS, human rights and peace building, life skills, governance and pro-active citizenship.

Over the years Chaudhry and her staff of 16 young people have worked with over 5,000 individuals to set up over 200 projects in India, training youth at international, regional and local levels as well as networks such as Students for the Promotion of International Law, the Global MDG Summit India 2008 and the Indian Youth Climate Network.

Read the rest of this entry »

Real Results in Afghanistan

By: Louisa Bargeron and Lars Anderson

During the USAID delegation to Afghanistan, Administrator Rajiv Shah, Mission Director Earl Gast, and Alex Their, head of the Office of Afghanistan and Pakistan,  visited the Hesa Awal Community Development Council (CDC)—an initiative made possible through Afghanistan’s National Solidarity Programme (NSP)—located in Dakoy Payan Village, Kabul.  Also present was Deputy Minister Wais Ahmad Barmak for Programmes, Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Dr. Rajiv Shah, Administrator for the United States Agency for International Development, visited a Community Development Council Health Clinic in Mirbacha Kot, north of Kabul, Afghanistan. Dr. Shah was accompanied by USAID Mission Director Earl Gast and Minister of Rural Rehabilitation and Development Jarullah Mansoori. Photo Credit: Lars Anderson/USAID

Created in 2003, the solidarity program develops the ability of Afghan communities to identify, plan, manage and monitor their own development projects.  NSP empowers communities to manage resources transparently during all stages of the project-cycle and make decisions affecting their own lives and livelihoods.  In Hesa Awal, the CDC serves 482 families totaling 2,802 people.  Sometimes the men and women of this village come together, at the same time, to discuss what matters to them most and on this day the villagers agreed that their clinic was a top-priority.  The clinic serves an average of 70 patients a day, most of them children and soon-to-be mothers.  For parents, the biggest impact has been the enhanced quality of maternal health care, as well as the improved health of their children as a result of vaccinations.

Administrator Shah was enthusiastic with the development council’s capacity to come together on a weekly basis and connect with the people to address local issues.  Shah noted how much of a huge difference and positive impact this program has had on the community, most notably the CDC’s work in establishing a well-stocked  and run clinic and completion of a local road project, which combined, cost less than sixty thousand dollars.

Click here to see video from the Administrator's trip to Afghanistan.

Minister Barmak reinforced the NSP’s goal of fostering a sense of local ownership and leadership and was grateful for USAID‘s support.

Both Earl Gast and Alex Thier recognized the programs proven results in connecting the local government to the provincial level.

The CDC, supported by USAID, is the largest component of Afghanistan’s National Solidarity Program.

Midwives and Roses

By Amie Batson, Deputy Assistant Administrator for USAID’s Global Health Bureau

I’ve just returned from my first ever week in Pakistan and what a week it was.  Working with my colleagues in the US embassy and USAID offices, and with their Pakistani counterparts, I came to appreciate that development work in Pakistan is exceptionally hard but also very rewarding.

On Monday, I visited to Peshawar, a 2 ½ hour drive from Islamabad, to meet with the health authorities and to visit a public health school for Lady Health Visitors, Community Midwives and other paramedical staff.  You might know Peshawar from the news as one of the areas close to the Afghan border where lots of refugees have settled in camps to escape the violence in Afghanistan.

Although I’ve worked in global health for 20 years, this is the first time I’ve ever needed an armored vehicle to visit a field site.   Once we arrived in Peshawar we changed cars, picked up both US and armed Pakistani security escorts –– and continued driving ahead through the confused traffic of cars, bicycles, donkey carts and people. After a hair-raising journey through downtown Peshawar, we finally arrived at our destination – the school of public health that trains women to be deliver babies and health care in the most remote areas of Pakistan – and I was given the all clear to open the car door.

Re-arranging the head scarf and long coat that I wore to show respect for local customs, I cautiously went to meet the school’s director.  She was already waiting on the front step with a big smile and bouquet of roses in her hand.  After introductions to her all-female teaching staff of doctors and midwives, she gave me a tour of the school.

First we visited two classrooms with 60 young women, each of whom had been selected from over 600 applicants from around the country.   These women were in their 2nd year of the two-year Lady Health Visitors program, and would soon be accredited as midwives and medical personnel.  After they complete their training, these women will return and work in health clinics that provide the only medical care that many in their community will ever receive.  Most clinics serve up to 10,000 people – and the Lady Health Visitors provide services ranging from vaccinating infants and children to protecting them from diseases like measles, whooping cough, polio and hepatitis, to providing care for pregnant women to delivering babies and educating families about the importance of nutrition and spacing of pregnancies.

The women were excited to meet someone from the US and to thank our country for supporting their school.   For only about $24 each month, our US government supports a range of small upgrades to the school to help improve the learning environment and the quality of education provided.  These items included training materials, models for anatomy class, and structural upgrades to the classrooms and students hostels. For the Community Midwives that were trained there, basic equipment was provided for the girls to take to their health post once they graduated – equipment like a birthing table, safe delivery equipment, sheets, a sterilizer, a stethoscope and small stipends for the women to live on.  The Director showed us the “anatomy room” with plastic models of the human body, the delivery room and labor room – a room with 5 beds, the immunization and consultation rooms and the dormitories.  The tour finished in the kitchen – where the delicious smells of lunch (which couldn’t be eaten until we left) came from an enormous pot sitting on a fire.   As we said our goodbyes in the courtyard we spotted an old Dodge school bus, a gift from decades ago that was carefully cajoled into starting every now and then.

I’m grateful for the opportunity to contribute to the work our government is doing to improve health around the world and for the opportunity to witness first-hand the impact U.S. assistance has in Pakistan.  I’m confident that the lives and impact of the Pakistani health workers I met have been forever changed by our assistance.  In 20 years of development work – I’ve never had the armed escort  – but I’ve also never been greeted with a bouquet of roses.

To read more, go to http://www.usaid.gov/pk/newsroom/news/disaster/101220.html

Providing Safe Water to Cities in India

By: USAID/India

For many Indian cities and towns facing the challenges of growing populations and urban expansion, providing direct access to clean, affordable, and reliable drinking water is a significant challenge. Currently, only a fraction of the urban population has direct access to clean piped water, often because of inadequate and inefficient supply systems. The delivery of water and sanitation services in cities is particularly important because of the direct impact on human health and productivity. To help address the urgent need for investment in water and sanitation infrastructure across the country, the USAID Financial Institutions Reform and Expansion (FIRE-D) project tested two sustainable models for providing affordable and equitable access to safe drinking water and sanitation in the Indian states of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.

Children collect water from a hand pump in an urban slum in Agra, Uttar Pradesh. Most slums in India lack clean water, electricity, sanitation and other basic services. Photo Credit: Sukhminder Dosanj

In the state of Orissa, FIRE-D provided technical assistance, training, and capacity building to the state government’s water utility to help restructure operations, institute operating and financing reforms, and move toward full cost recovery to allow it to expand services to all urban residents, including the poor. The Japan International Cooperation Agency offered to continue the institutional strengthening process after the FIRE-D project ends in January 2011.

In addition, FIRE-D brokered a public-private partnership agreement between a Bhubaneswar, Orissa NGO; a microfinance institution; the Michael and Susan Dell Foundation; and the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC) for the provision of water and sanitary toilets in seven slums of Bhubaneswar which benefited approximately 3,500 residents. As part of the project, FIRE-D also provided technical assistance to the BMC to formulate a comprehensive strategy for all of Bhubaneswar’s 377 low-income settlements, with a focus on how water and sanitation are linked to improved health and hygiene.

FIRE-D helped the Madhya Pradesh Urban Infrastructure Fund plan and prepare bankable water and sanitation projects, which will be financed through municipal bonds and other sources of private sector capital.  FIRE-D also partnered with the UK Department for International Development to design and construct improved water and sanitation infrastructure in 12 slums in Dewas, an ancient town in Madhya Pradesh. The slums will be connected to a new city-wide water project that is currently under construction.  The lessons from this initiative were used to develop a citywide sanitation plan, which provides a comprehensive roadmap for a cleaner and healthier city.

Paving the Way for a Measles-Free Nigeria

Guest Post by: Andrea Gay, Executive Director of Children’s Health at the United Nations Foundation

A young boy in Fada, a rural village in northern Nigeria, about to receive a measles vaccination. Eric Porterfield/UN Foundation

A young boy in Fada, a rural village in northern Nigeria, about to receive a measles vaccination. Eric Porterfield/UN Foundation

For the last ten years, I have seen thousands of children cry after being pricked by needle for a vaccination against measles –a deadly disease that is preventable by one quick, albeit painful, shot.

I witnessed it again this week in northern Nigeria, as the country launched a nationwide integrated measles campaign to protect 31 million children against the deadly disease. Every child nine months to five years old is receiving a measles vaccine, in addition to an oral polio vaccine for newborns through five year-olds.

Americans, who haven’t seen widespread measles outbreaks in the U.S. in decades, might be surprised to learn that measles still kills more than 450 people each day and that children are still at risk of paralysis from contracting polio.

But we are making progress—a decade ago, more than 700,000 children died from measles every year, but now the mortality rate has declined significantly – 78 percent worldwide and more than 90 percent in Africa. Strengthening routine immunization systems and increasing the capacity of trained health workers from previous health campaigns have helped pave the way for the elimination of measles.

Thanks to the leadership of Nigeria’s Ministry of Health, U.N. Agencies, nongovernmental agencies, and the support of traditional and religious leaders ahead of and during immunization campaigns, measles and polio have nearly been eliminated in Nigeria.

USAID worked closely with Nigerian counterparts to reinforce these efforts and revitalized the polio immunization teams by hiring independent monitors to conduct spot checks to quickly identify problems and improve motivation and coverage. Working outside their own communities and the polio team structure, the monitors have proven to be very effective.

As I have witnessed during this and many other trips, integrated campaigns are one of the most cost-effective and efficient ways to eliminate both polio and measles. Immunizations for both diseases need to get to the same children who are often the most vulnerable and in the hardest to reach places. Eliminating both of these diseases can and should move forward together and it would be a missed opportunity not to put a stop to them both at the same time.

But we can’t do this alone. Funding shortfalls are threatening our recent gains. The Government of Nigeria is one of the African countries leading the way in financing immunization campaigns. However these diseases spread like wildfire, and even Nigeria has seen recent measles and polio outbreaks because not all of the children have been reached. The donor community must step up to support the elimination of measles and the eradication of polio as soon as possible so we can build off of our gains, instead of lose them.

Every shot, no matter how painful it is to watch for those brief seconds, offers a lifetime of health and promise for millions of children in Africa and around the world.

To learn more about how you can help visit the web sites for the Measles Initiative or the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

Feed the Future launches Comprehensive Approach to engaging the Private Sector

By:  Tjada McKenna,Director, Private Sector and Innovation Office, Bureau for Food Security

At the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos, Switzerland, Administrator Shah proudly announced USAID’s support for the WEF’s New Vision for Agriculture initiative. This initiative is led by 17 global companies, including Archer Daniels Midland, Cargill, Coca-Cola, DuPont, General Mills, Kraft Foods, Monsanto, PepsiCo, and Wal-Mart to name a few that are Industry Partners of the Forum. The goal of this initiative is to utilize market-based solutions to increase production by 20%, while decreasing emissions by 20% and reducing the prevalence of rural poverty by 20% every decade.

Today, nearly 1 billion people go hungry everyday – half of them farmers – and malnutrition needlessly robs people of their potential to contribute to their families, their communities and society as a whole. Three-quarters of the poor live in rural areas, most relying on agriculture for their livelihood, with women contributing the bulk of farm labor. And now, these farmers face even tougher constraints as the world must produce more with less and the agriculture sector is entering a new era marked by scarcer resources, greater demand and higher risks of volatility partly owing to global climate change.

Standing alongside the CEO’s of Unilever and Monsanto, Administrator Shah committed USAID, through the U.S. Government’s Feed the Future (FTF) initiative, to promote the development of innovative, large-scale private sector partnerships in FTF focus countries to achieve significant impact on global hunger and malnutrition. This approach will bring together farmers, local businesses, supply chain companies, global corporations, local and national governments and civil society to promote sound investments in agriculture. USAID will support these partnerships by leveraging its own investments in agriculture-led growth in key corridors or breadbasket regions in FtF countries.

For example, USAID through FtF is supporting Tanzania’s Kilimo Kwanza Growth Corridor with an equity investment of $2 million in the Corridor’s $50 million catalytic fund, and is considering additional annual investments up to $10 million. The fund will help open up partnership opportunities for private investment in rural infrastructure (irrigation and rural roads), processing, research and training, institutional capacity building, and nutrition and is expected to leverage nearly $500 million in private sector investment.

In an effort to combat malnutrition, USAID also signed an Memorandum of Understanding with DSM Nutritional Products to work together to improve dietary quality across the developing world, starting with rice fortification in rice staple food countries such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, and Tanzania. DSM is a global material and life sciences company and a leader in the fields of human and animal nutrition with 70 years of innovative product development and application technology in vitamins and nutrient fortification. USAID will also tap into DSM’s expertise in efforts to improve the nutritional value, shelf-life, and nutritional test methods of food aid commodities.

Work together with FTF focus country governments, USAID will continue to promote the development of dynamic new partnerships directly with the private sector by facilitating the work of both local and private companies who want to contribute to new models of agriculture-led development. We stand ready to build new partnerships based on jointly defined priorities and focused choices to transform agriculture and drive food security.

Week 10: Addressing Malnutrition

USAID 50th anniversary banner

Insufficient food and lack of knowledge about child feeding makes malnutrition a major health problem in many developing countries. To help solve the problem Costa Rica in the 1960’s has established a National Nutrition Clinic under the direction of Dr. Uriel Badilla, one of only two nutrition specialists in the tiny country. Dr. Badilla received training for his work at the National Institute of Nutrition and Children’s Hospital of Mexico under a grant from USAID. Photo Credit: USAID

We have a long history of addressing malnutrition and it remains one of our top priorities.
Check out our current work at Feed the Future.

U.S. and Russia Further Cooperation In The Fight Against Polio

While in Moscow last summer, I visited the M.P. Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and saw the history of collaboration between the U.S. and Russia on polio research.  I saw opportunity to advance our cooperation to address new challenges and work with Russian experts to eradicate polio for good enabled by the Obama Administration ‘reset’ policy and the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission.

Today, USAID Administrator Raj Shah joined Dr. Nils Daulaire, Director of the Office of Global Health Affairs at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and Dr. Veronika Skvortsova, Deputy Minister of Health and Social Development for the Russian Federation, in signing a Protocol of Intent that will deepen cooperation between American and Russian health experts to eradicate polio around the globe.

US Ambassador to the United Nations Betty King, HHS Director of Global Health Affairs Nils Daulaire,USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah, and Russian Deputy Minister of Health Veronika Skvortsova

It’s fitting that Administrator Shah signed this Protocol while visiting Geneva to serve on the World Health Organization’s Commission on Information and Accountability for Women and Children’s Health.  Polio is a highly infectious disease that mainly affects children under the age of five.  One in 200 infections leads to paralysis and among those paralyzed, 5-10% die.  Polio is easily preventable with available vaccines, as evidenced by the success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to reduce polio by 99% worldwide since the Initiative started in 1988.   However, recent years have seen outbreaks in several countries.

It pains me to think of the children that unnecessarily suffer from a disease that can be prevented for 14 cents.  It’s incredible that we’re so close to ridding the world of this disease once and for all. I believe that, working with our international partners, we can finally live in a polio-free world.

I am excited by the impact that we can have on lives around the world working together as global partners.

Page 42 of 58:« First« 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 »Last »