USAID Impact Photo Credit: USAID and Partners

Archives for Health

Commemorating World Health Day

In his State of the Union address, President Obama called upon our nation to join with the world in ending extreme poverty in the next two decades. Today, we have new tools that enable us to achieve a goal that was simply unimaginable in the past: the eradication of extreme poverty and its most devastating corollaries, including widespread hunger and preventable child and maternal death.

Preventing and controlling vector-borne diseases, diseases carried by insects, ticks and small animals, is central to achieving President Obama’s vision of ending extreme poverty. On World Health Day, commemorated each year on April 7, the World Health Organization (WHO) highlights actions we can all take to protect ourselves from the serious diseases that these “vectors” can cause.

Children wash their hands in Ghana, where USAID supports prevention and treatment of trachoma, a blinding eye disease.  International Trachoma Initiative (ITI) ..

Children wash their hands in Ghana, where USAID supports prevention and treatment of trachoma, a blinding eye disease.
International Trachoma Initiative (ITI) ..

More than half of the world’s population is at risk from vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever and neglected tropical diseases. The most commonly known vectors include mosquitoes, sandflies, bugs, ticks and snails, which are responsible for transmitting a wide range of parasites and pathogens contributing to deadly diseases.

Senegal: Demonstrating the proper use of ITNs in Senegal. Photo Credit: Maggie Hallahan

Senegal: Demonstrating the proper use of ITNs in Senegal. Photo Credit: Maggie Hallahan

Below, we highlight solutions to combat extreme poverty and vector-borne diseases.

Solutions

  • In this scene-setter, USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah explains how USAID and its partners have embraced the challenge of creating a world without extreme poverty.
  • In “A Call to Action to End Extreme Poverty,” Alex Thier and Ilyse Stempler discuss how USAID and its partners are adopting an integrated, holistic approach that capitalizes on their collective expertise. They share past successes in addressing extreme poverty and introduce some new ideas to finish the job.
  • In “Your Voice,” a continuing FrontLines feature, Adm. Tim Ziemer, U.S. Global Malaria Coordinator, shares his perspective on leading a major presidential initiative to end deaths from malaria
  • Katherine Sanchez profiles Ghana’s efforts to become the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to eliminate trachoma, the world’s leading cause of preventable blindness.
  • A Yumbe survey team learns how to use electronic tablets to collect data on trachoma.  Christine Ninsiima

    A Yumbe survey team learns how to use electronic tablets to collect data on trachoma.
    Christine Ninsiima

    And in “Trachoma vs. Technology,” Phil Downs and Scott Torres uncover efforts to capture and analyze data quickly on mobile electronic tablets in rural Uganda. This approach is transforming the battle against an ancient eye disease, for which timely treatment can prevent blindness.

  • Students prepare to take part in a mapping survey at Pav Primary School in Rattanakiri.  Credit: Chan Vitharin ..

    Students prepare to take part in a mapping survey at Pav Primary School in Rattanakiri.
    Credit: Chan Vitharin ..

    In “Wiping Snail Fever Off Cambodia’s Map – by Drawing It On,” Sokhon Sea delves into an effort to enlist many, including school children, on a mission to wipe out the infection that can lead to debilitating illness and malnutrition and cognitive difficulties in children.

  • Finally, Ann Varghese and Chris Glass explore a unique drug-shoe combination that could stomp out two debilitating diseases endemic to Haiti and how wearing new sneakers kicks up that protection even more by creating a barrier between parasites and kids’ feet.

 

Texts Connect Midwives to Mothers in Timor-Leste

‘A pregnant woman has one foot in the grave.’ This common saying reflects the reality in many developing countries: bearing a child is one of the main risks to a woman’s life. In the poor countries of the world, giving birth is both one of the most significant days in a woman’s life but also a time when she is closest to losing it.

In Timor-Leste, a tiny country just north of Australia, progress against maternal deaths has been slow. Since independence from Indonesia in 2002, the country has made great efforts to provide trained midwives for pregnant women who seek them, but a wide gap remains. The rural population is widely dispersed in mountainous terrain and often far from health facilities. More than half of all babies in Timor-Leste are born at home with help only from family members. As a result, many women and babies die in those first few hours and days after birth.

Health posts in rural Timor-Leste are often several hours' walk from remote communities. Credit: Henrique Bere, HAI

Health posts in rural Timor-Leste are often several hours’ walk from remote communities.
Credit: Henrique Bere, HAI

USAID has been working with Timor-Leste’s Health Ministry since 2004 to help find solutions to this terrible problem. In 2011, U.S.-based NGO Health Alliance International (HAI) won a USAID Child Survival and Health Grant to try a new approach.

“We realized that one basic reason that many women didn’t give birth with professional help was that their contact with midwives was so brief that they weren’t able to develop a sense of trust and confidence,” said Susan Thompson, HAI’s Program Director, based in Seattle. “There also was a lot that women could do to have a healthy baby that they didn’t know about, and it couldn’t be conveyed in the usual two or three short prenatal care visits.”

Midwife Justa Pereira and mother-to-be Rosalia Juela test the project's SMS messages. Credit: Catalpa International

Midwife Justa Pereira and mother-to-be Rosalia Juela test the project’s SMS messages.
Credit: Catalpa International

How could HAI help the Ministry bridge that gap between women and their midwives? Noting the dramatic increases in mobile phone use throughout the country, HAI proposed the first use of this technology as a permanent behavior-change tool. The focus for this new use of mobile phone technology is in Manufahi District, where cell phone ownership is fairly high at just over half, but, at 19 percent, use of skilled birth attendants is well below the national average of about 30 percent. Ministry statistics estimate that the district has about 11,000 women of reproductive age, and expected 2,200 pregnancies in 2013, the first year of the project.

The project is called “Mobile Moms” or Liga Inan (“connecting mothers”) in the local language of Tetun. The project team matched the technological opportunity to the needs of the Ministry and developed a dual approach to making use of the widespread availability of mobile phones.

First, working with Catalpa International, a software development group in Timor-Leste, the project team created an internet-based program to send SMS maternal health messages twice a week to pregnant women in Tetun, the language most widely spoken. The messages detail important actions that the women can take to safeguard their pregnancies, and include advice on postpartum and newborn care for the first six weeks after delivery.

Second, the project facilitates phone conversations between midwives and the expectant mothers at critical times. Women can send SMS messages very cheaply to ask for information or assistance, and midwives can call them back at the project’s expense.

Health Ministry officials in rural Manufahi District have been supportive and intensely involved since the beginning. Director of District Health Services Teofilho Tilman said that they have “seen … a significant increase in the number of women receiving antenatal care and delivering at the health facility” since the project began. Over the past year in Same Subdistrict, where the project started its work in February 2013, the number of women coming to a birthing facility, using a skilled birth attendant or making four or more antenatal care visits has doubled.

In a recent study on the impacts of this project on health professionals, midwives consistently reported that they liked the service because they can better follow the progress of their patients and meet their needs. In her response, one midwife said:

For me, it helps… because before Liga Inan we didn’t know the condition of the mothers. Through Liga Inan, we have their number and we know their due date. So for example, in November we know which mothers will give birth. We match that info with the data here to check, and if they didn’t come to the health facility, we call to find out how they are.

Amalia Martins Calapes is a new mother in Same, the capital of Manufahi District. Project SMS messages have encouraged her to visit her midwife regularly. Credit: Marisa Harrison, HAI

Amalia Martins Calapes is a new mother in Same, the capital of Manufahi District. Project SMS messages have encouraged her to visit her midwife regularly.
Credit: Marisa Harrison, HAI

In the first year of the project, Same Subdistrict midwives enrolled more than 1,000 women in the project. Nearly 600 women have completed their pregnancies and received the special postpartum SMS messages to help them give their babies a healthy start in life.

Women participating in Liga Inan provide the project with valuable input about project impact and success. Amalia Martins Calapes from the town of Same did not participate in the program through her first two pregnancies. During her third, she did. And it helps her stay motivated to seek care.

Sometimes I feel too lazy to go to the clinic… but on Mondays and Thursdays I read the SMS that comes to my phone, and think, ‘Today, I must make myself go to the clinic.’

An important goal of the program is to increase community understanding of better ways to assure a healthy pregnancy. Encouraging women to share the SMS messages is one way that can happen. According to Amalia:

When the messages arrive, the first person that I share them with is my husband. He knows and then the household knows, and then I can share information with my girlfriends. I can tell them that the Liga Inan program sent me messages about this, and this, and this. So when they need something, they can contact this number or go directly to the clinic.

Today, Amalia agrees with Timor-Leste’s new saying for mothers:

‘Healthy mothers and healthy babies give us a strong nation.’

Meeting Water, Food and Health Needs in Kenya

On this World Water Day 2014, I am encouraged by how USAID’s water programs around the world contribute to integrated approaches that meet the objectives of the Agency’s Water and Development Strategy, as well as the Feed the Future and the Global Health Presidential Initiatives. During my recent work in Kenya with the USAID team at Kaputir and Kalimngorok, I was able to see first hand the efforts to strengthen Kenya’s resilience to disease, climate change, drought, floods and water shortages.

Across Kenya, USAID’s AIDS, Population, and Health Integrated Assistance Plus (APHIAplus) program is working to strengthen and improve healthcare systems. In Kaputir, the APHIAplus Integrated Marginal Arid Regions Innovative Socialized Health Approach (IMARISHA) project supports a health clinic and a Community-Led Total Sanitation project.

Photo Credit: Martin Mulongo

Photo Credit: Martin Mulongo

As I walked up a slight slope to the village of Kaputir, the first thing I saw was the gigantic masonry water tank that holds 13,000 gallons of water situated next to a one-story, concrete block clinic with maternity, pharmacy, consultation and emergency rooms. The front of the clinic has a small porch on which children and adults sit in a long line, partially shaded from the sun, waiting for their turn to receive basic medical care. The clinic staff proudly showed me their microscope, as well as their solar-powered refrigerator used to store medicines and blood samples.

Photo credit: Martin Mulongo

13,000 gallon water tank in Kaputir (Photo credit: Martin Mulongo)

Also as part of APHIAplus IMARISHA, the nearby community of some 6,000 people is working to achieve “open defecation-free” status. For example, the house right next to the clinic is leading the charge by being the first to add a pit latrine; it has a slab covering the hole, surrounded by a thatched fence and a “tippy-tap” handwashing device with water and soap.

In the same community, another project implemented by the Millennium Water Alliance, through their partner World Vision, supports a large water storage project connected to a nearby borehole. The combined efforts of these programs ensure integrated water, health, sanitation and hygiene services, which in turn reduce the prevalence of diarrhea, a major contributor to childhood mortality.

As we drove into the Kalimngorok area, we looked out at the flat, brown, dry landscape with few bushes and no rivers or streams in sight. At first glance, I wondered how one could grow anything here. In the distance I saw a large water catchment, built to capture and store rainwater for both human and livestock consumption and irrigation. A secondary benefit of the catchment is that water has seeped through the earthen floor, helping to restore groundwater underneath. At the base of the catchment, the community has installed a substantial metal pump on a concrete slab to draw water from the restored aquifer. In the surrounding fields, farmers experiment with different crops resistant to drought, using soil tillage techniques to increase the capture of rainwater when the rains arrive.

WFP Irrigation project in Turkana -Kalemngorok

WFP Irrigation project in Turkana -Kalemngorok (Photo credit: Martin Mulongo)

We also visited USAID’s Turkana Rehabilitation Program in Kalimngorok, implemented by the United Nations World Food Program, which integrates rainwater harvesting technology and food production through a range of water management practices. I walked through the fields observing construction of on-farm contour bunds (embankments) that capture rain as it falls on fields and increases yields, and the building of water pans (shallow retention ponds that store water for irrigation and watering livestock).  The program also promotes improved nutrition by establishing fruit orchards and vegetable gardens, diversifies income through bee keeping, and reduces environmental degradation through establishment of micro-catchments.

At both Kaputir and Kalimngorok, I am left with the sobering firsthand realization of the challenges of assisting thousands of people in this arid environment. But I am also left with a sense of optimism. We saw progress in action in capturing and storing water, providing healthcare, navigating the lack of an electrical grid and producing crops in such an arid environment. USAID/Kenya’s approach of layering, integrating and sequencing its technical interventions and projects brings hope that over time these activities could be expanded and provided at scale, changing the lives of thousands of people for the better.

Bringing Hope to Women in Sri Lanka’s Former Conflict Zones

Like most places that have experienced conflict throughout the world, women were deeply affected by Sri Lanka’s 26-year conflict.  For most women who lived in the Indian Ocean island’s conflict zones, displacement, destruction, violence, harassment and loss were part of their everyday life.  The conflict ended in 2009, leaving many women traumatized and in need of psychosocial care, without belongings or livelihoods, and after the loss of their spouses, as heads of households.  Several USAID initiatives continue to support these women by integrating them into society and bringing normalcy back into their lives.

Thaminy Vedaasingham* is one of the BIZ+ program’s beneficiariesOne such initiative is USAID’s BIZ+ program which helps to increase and enhance equitable economic growth in the former northern and eastern conflict zones.  BIZ+ is partnering with small and medium-sized local businesses to create 5,000 new livelihoods and increase household incomes. The program primarily targets women; including war widows, disabled women and female-headed households.

Thaminy Vedaasingham* is one of the program’s beneficiaries. She is 25 years old and lives in one of the worst conflict-affected northern districts of Sri Lanka.  Having lost a limb during the conflict, Thaminy faced many hardships.  This is when Thaminy heard about the vocational training and production center in her district that provides livelihood assistance to war widows, women abandoned or women separated from their spouses or families. USAID is supporting the center to expand production and marketing of rice flour and spices and provide vulnerable women like Thaminy with new skills and sustainable livelihoods.

“The profit of the business belongs to the vulnerable women who work so diligently in the center. USAID’s assistance and support – in the way of building new hostel and storage facilities, and providing new equipment and transportation – have helped us to overcome any challenges and be successful businesswomen.” says Thaminy.

Thaminy is now economically independent and has the confidence to socialize with others.  “Thaminy is now enjoying life without worrying about the leg she lost. She is happy to work and earn for her family and for herself. As a mother, I am very proud of it”, quips Thaminy’s mother.

The Managing Director of the Vocational Training and Production Centre is happy to see the socio-economic business enterprise model with a vision of improving livelihood of vulnerable women come this far.  But above all, he is happy to see how the project has increased hope in the minds of women who seek empowerment through employment opportunities.

* Name has been changed to protect identity 

IWD 2014: An AIDS Vaccine as a Force for Women’s Equality

We’ve come a long way in 104 years of marking International Women’s Day. But far too many women remain left behind in far too many parts of the world.

In sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS is the leading killer of women of reproductive age. Limited education, economic and social dependence on men, and gender-based violence severely restrict women’s power over their own health. Imagine what an AIDS vaccine could change for African women and their children.  Photo Credit: IAVI

In sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS is the leading killer of women of reproductive age. Limited education, economic and social dependence on men, and gender-based violence severely restrict women’s power over their own health. Imagine what an AIDS vaccine could change for African women and their children. Photo Credit: Frederic Courbet

In Africa, a vicious cycle of HIV and AIDS and gender inequity continues to thwart women’s hopes for a healthy and productive life. AIDS is the number-one killer of women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa and the world, and women account for more than half of the people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. It’s a human tragedy and an economic one.  Beyond the epidemic’s direct costs, women are a driving force behind Africa’s economy, and their productivity loss takes a toll. Women own nearly one-third of firms in sub-Saharan Africa and grow at least 80 percent of the food.

Inequity in daily life explains much of the disproportional impact of HIV on women. Limited education, economic and social dependence on men, and gender-based violence severely restrict African women’s power over their own lives and health. An effective and widely available AIDS vaccine will help break through many of the related social and cultural barriers.

Women in Africa are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS and play a critical role in the global response, from doctors, nurses and lab scientists to counselors, community organizers and volunteers in clinical trials of vaccines and other new prevention technologies. Photo Credit: IAVI

Women in Africa are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS and play a critical role in the global response, from doctors, nurses and lab scientists to counselors, community organizers and volunteers in clinical trials of vaccines and other new prevention technologies. Photo Credit: Jean-Marc Giboux/Getty Images

Helping to ensure development of an AIDS vaccine is more than a job for those of us at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and our many partners. It’s a passion – from the clinician in Entebbe, to the community organizer in Kilifi, to the trial participant rolling up her sleeve in Kigali. At a young age, I learned the power of vaccines when my parents, who had lost a child to measles, took me to get the measles vaccine soon after it was introduced. As a senior executive in the vaccine industry, I have seen firsthand the transformative value that vaccines have brought to the developed and developing worlds. Just imagine what an AIDS vaccine could do for women in Africa. Today, they face heavy odds that they might contract HIV and potentially leave their children orphaned, but tomorrow they could be confident that they are protected from HIV and live healthy and productive lives.

There has been enormous progress in treatment and prevention, but AIDS still kills 1.6 million people every year. I am proud to work daily alongside the thousands of dedicated scientists, advocates, clinicians, counselors, and community organizers – so many supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through USAID – who are devoting their lives and passions to achieving this sustainable solution for the women of Africa. As we collectively work to find an effective vaccine and ensure its swift distribution to all those who need it, we are already opening avenues to healthcare, education, and support that equalize and empower women.

Human-Centered Design and the Last Mile

This is an excerpt from a blog post that originally appeared on Stanford Social Innovation Review.

Community health workers demonstrate a storage and inventory management system for commodities, diagnostic tools, and medicines. (Image courtesy of frog design</em>

Community health workers demonstrate a storage and inventory management system for commodities, diagnostic tools, and medicines.
Image courtesy of frog design

Despite many challenges, Uganda’s village health teams deliver care to some of the nearly 85 percent of Ugandans who live in remote, hard-to-reach corners of the country, or the “last mile.” During some months, these committed volunteers know that they will have the medicines necessary to treat children dying of pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhea. But during others, the teams are less sure. They’ve also come to expect inconsistent supervision and training.

The situation in Uganda is not unique—community health worker (CHW) programs throughout the world struggle from limited resources and sub-optimal design, often devolving from a national strategy into a patchwork of nonprofit programs and activity.

Why is this? The global health community understands that these same programs are important for reaching Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4)—to reduce mortality among children under five from the current level of 6.6 million deaths per year to 4.3 million by the end of 2015. Yet many perceive CHWs as inadequate replacements for trained health professionals such as doctors and nurses.

We can flip this logic on its head and take a new approach by placing these workers at the center of our design strategies, recognizing that they provide a vital link between communities and the health system. We need a holistic framework that motivates and empowers them.

At the core of this framework, we would need integrated community case management (iCCM), which offers a systematic approach to delivering and expanding access to life-saving medicines. CHWs form the backbone of this approach; they can ensure that sick and vulnerable populations are correctly diagnosed and treated. If fully funded and implemented, it is estimated that iCCM delivered through CHWs could save up to 250,000 lives by the end of 2015. Accomplishing this would require a few important tools:

  1. Increased access to commodities, diagnostic tools, and medicines. Specifically, this would need to include malaria rapid diagnostic tests and respiratory timers for pneumonia, artemisinin-based combination therapies to treat malaria, antibiotics such as amoxicillin dispersible tablets for pneumonia, and ORS/Zinc to treat diarrhea.
  2. A solid community-based service delivery platform. The platform would have front-line CHWs at the center, with the necessary systems support for them to function effectively and efficiently. Support would include training and deployment (including retention and incentives), an effective supply chain that reaches the most peripheral levels, supportive supervision, and monitoring to maintain quality and skills.

With this in mind, in 2012, UNICEF, MDG Health Alliance, and Save the Children reached out to several other partner organizations, including USAID, with the goal of developing a holistic CHW system that could:

  • Serve as an assessment tool for existing country-level CHW programs
  • Outline a menu of best practices and innovations from across the globe while encouraging idea-sharing
  • Empower, recognize, and motivate CHW programs to serve as platforms for programs beyond iCCM—including newborn and maternal health programs

The team partnered with the innovation consulting firm frog design, which engaged more than 60 organizations—including global health experts, private sector corporations, and program implementers across Africa and Asia—and led the team through sessions and immersion exercises in Uganda and Senegal over 12 weeks…

To continue, please see the full blog post at Stanford Social Innovation Review.

No Birth Should Be Left Up To Chance

Giving birth ranks among the scariest moments for any mother. It certainly was for me. I was living in Hong Kong at the time when my second child was born. And he was born in a hurry. He came so fast that I actually thought I’d give birth in our car on the way to the hospital! Fortunately, that didn’t happen and I safely delivered my son Patrick surrounded by a team of well-trained doctors and nurses, not to mention my loving (and relieved!) husband by my side.

Mozambican mother holds her newborn. Photo credit: MCHIP

Mozambican mother holds her newborn. Photo credit: MCHIP

But I’m one of the lucky ones.

As new research released today by Save the Children reveals, 40 million women give birth without any trained help whatsoever. What’s more, two million women give birth entirely alone.

I met one of those women in Nepal about five years ago. I was there visiting our programs in the south of the country and stopped in to see a mom who had given birth a month prior. She sat with us and talked quite matter-of-factly about how when she went into labor with her third child, she didn’t panic. She merely laid down in a clean part of her house, caught the baby when she came out, cut the umbilical cord and wrapped her to keep her warm.

When she had finished telling her story, and I had stopped shaking my head in amazement, I couldn’t help but compare her experience to mine. After all, both of our children came into the world faster than we had anticipated. However, while my husband was there to drive me—fast—to a first-class hospital, this woman had no one. Her husband was away in India on business and her two daughters were in the next village. Even if she could manage to get herself to the nearest clinic, which was 2 kilometers away, she would have had to travel on foot. So she did the next best thing; she left it up to chance.

Fortunately for this mom both she and her newborn survived. But for too many women in the same situation, the outcome is much more tragic.

So many things can go wrong when a mother gives birth without a skilled birth attendant (SBA). Things such as prolonged labor, pre-eclampsia and infection—which are perfectly manageable when an SBA is present—can mean a death sentence in the absence of one.

For this reason, Save the Children is partnering with world leaders, philanthropists and the private sector to commit to ensuring that by 2025 every birth is attended by trained and equipped health workers who can deliver essential health interventions for both the mother and the newborn.

Because no birth should be left up to chance.

Business Students Tackle Childhood Pneumonia in Uganda

A collaboration between USAID’s Center for Accelerating Innovation and Impact (CII) in the Global Health Bureau and the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University led to teams of business students from around the world competing on ways to reduce child deaths from pneumonia in Uganda.

The 11th annual Kellogg Biotech and Healthcare Case Competition brought together eleven teams representing nine business schools from the US, Canada, UK, and Mexico on January 25th in Chicago. This year’s winning team was from the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley and the runner-up from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.

The winning team from the Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley.

The winning team from the Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley. Credit: Jason Brown

Thirty-two teams applied to participate from twelve different schools around the world. The teams invited to compete had impressive credentials; many of the participants worked at global healthcare companies and several had medical degrees.

Judges of the event were pharmaceutical executives who evaluated the teams’ business-minded supply and demand solutions. Pneumonia is the largest killer of children in the developing world and can lead to death if not correctly and quickly diagnosed and treated appropriately.

“This is business education at its finest,” observed Tim Calkins, clinical professor of marketing at Kellogg and one of the directors of the case competition. “In this competition we have teams of students working to address a major global health issue. In the process, they are learning an enormous about global health, team dynamics and the power of business concepts.”

The case was developed over the course of several months by students and professors at Kellogg in close collaboration with CII. Students performed research and interviews throughout Uganda.

Professor Calkins and Kara Palamountain, Director of the Global Health Initiative at Kellogg, then wrote the case outlining the many barriers to increasing the use of antibiotics in a country with limited resources. At the end of the case students are asked to propose solutions from several options within a given budget to maximize lives saved.

“This case forced students to think both analytically and creatively. The challenges are significant; it isn’t a case with a simple answer,” said Calkins.

CII actively looks to support the already strong work across USAID’s Global Health Bureau by engaging a range of new thinkers and perspectives, many from the private sector. This event demonstrated the value of seeking out these new perspectives; many of the teams proposed promising, well-structured, and feasible solutions based on frameworks and analysis from their business school curricula. Some of the teams will be invited to present their proposals to the Pneumonia Working Group based at UNICEF to inform ongoing global scale-up efforts.

Kellogg Professor Tim Calkins discusses the case following the competition

Kellogg Professor Tim Calkins discusses the case following the competition

Exposing business students to the challenges and opportunities in these developing markets now will likely benefit them in their future healthcare careers. Many countries in Africa and South East Asia are among the fastest growing pharmaceutical markets in the world. Calkins noted, “I was delighted to use a pharmaceutical related case from Africa, since this is where some of the greatest needs and opportunities will be found in the healthcare world.”

In addition to this competition, the case will be a permanent teaching tool in a global health course at Kellogg.

Schools represented include:

  • Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota
  • Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University (Canada)
  • Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley
  • IPADE Business School (Mexico)
  • Judge Business School, University of Cambridge (UK)
  • Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University
  • Rutgers Business School
  • Stephen M. Ross School of Business, University of Michigan
  • University of Chicago Booth School of Business

Creating an AIDS-Free Generation through Science and Technology

Last year, the United States government provided testing and counseling for more than 57 million people through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). The program enrolled more than four million men in voluntary medical circumcision programs and supported more than five million orphans and vulnerable children in countries with some of the highest rates of HIV and AIDS. These are just a few of the remarkable achievements that PEPFAR has made over the past decade—a small testament to the hard work of so many who are committed to and work tirelessly every day to achieve an AIDS-free generation. These great achievements, however, would not be possible without inspiring advances in science and technology.

Women can use this ARV-based vaginal gel to protect themselves against HIV. International Partnership for Microbicides

Credit: International Partnership for Microbicides

For the first time, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) – through its Office of Science and Technology - has created an awards program that embodies the agency’s commitment to supporting innovation in science and technology applications. The Pioneers Prize pays tribute to technological advances that offer innovative solutions to critical issues facing global development. By utilizing science, technology and innovation, USAID is working toward its mission to end extreme poverty and promote resilient democratic societies.

As a key implementer of PEPFAR, USAID’s work in HIV and AIDS was well-recognized with this year’s Pioneer Prizes. Awarded three grand prizes, the Office of HIV/AIDS, along with its partners, has been able to share the transformative nature of its work with the rest of the global health and development community.

Among the grand prize winners is the Delivery Team Topping Up (DTTU) program, which uses vendor-managed inventory principles to “top up” supplies, such as condoms and HIV test kits, at public health facilities. To date, the program has serviced 1,800 clinics in Zimbabwe.

The PLACE Method, also a recipient, applies new technologies in HIV and STI testing, spatial mapping, epidemiologic theory and empiric evidence to address the problem of obtaining valid information that can prevent the spread of infections in sex workers and injecting drug users. It targets geographic areas with high rates of infection and the venues where people at high-risk meet. It then uses low-cost GPS receivers and Google Earth to identify gaps in prevention programs.

Finally, Tenofovir gel, a vaginally applied antiretroviral microbicide used to prevent HIV infection, gives women an alternative method to keep themselves safe during unprotected sex. Tested in the CAPRISA 004 trial, Tenofovir gel reduced HIV acquisition by an estimated 39 percent overall and by 54 percent in women with high gel adherence. While still awaiting the results of an ongoing confirmatory trial, regulatory approval, and scale-up, the CAPRISA 004 trial demonstrated for the first time that a microbicide has the potential to drastically reduce HIV infection for women.

With these awarded innovations, it is clear that USAID’s work toward HIV and AIDS prevention through PEPFAR remains essential to achieving our mission of ending extreme poverty. With the commitment, innovative spirit, creativity and hard work of our partners, USAID is continuously using science and technology in unprecedented ways to make great strides toward an AIDS-free generation.

Let’s Stand Up For Inclusion, Not Exclusion

The stigma and discrimination faced by people living with HIV/AIDS continues to be a roadblock for access to critical prevention and care. Yet every day I see significant steps that are being taken to overcome this obstacle, especially efforts led by USAID.

I was invited to speak at the USAID-funded Panos Caribbean media launch of its latest publication, “Speaking Out! Voices of Jamaican MSM.” This publication is a compilation of oral testimonies from the men having sex with men (MSM) community in Jamaica and an important product by the Panos Caribbean/World Learning project which works to strengthen and improve the livelihoods of these men. Through this publication, Panos Caribbean develops public awareness about the issues affecting the MSM community and promotes through the media, tolerance and accountability for MSM who are impacted by HIV/AIDS.

Denise A. Herbol

Denise A. Herbol

The social complexities surrounding the MSM community in Jamaica is often polarizing to the public.  There is serious stigma attached to any activities by this community. This is compounded by the fact that HIV remains a complex issue among the most-at-risk populations in Jamaica, including the MSM community. Current statistics on HIV prevalence rates in Jamaica are 1.7% in the general population, or roughly 32,000 persons living with AIDS. Figures are significantly higher in a number of high risk groups: for the MSMs, the prevalence rate is 32%, which in many cases can be directly attributed to the stigma, discrimination and fear of violence or legal sanctions.

In an effort to achieve an AIDS-free generation, breaking down the barriers for all individuals is essential. With support from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), USAID is allocating significant resources to reach populations most at risk for transmitting or becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. PEPFAR seeks to promote an enabling environment of supportive laws, regulations, policies and social norms in order to facilitate meaningful access to HIV services for these populations at both the facility- and community-level.

USAID, in partnership with Panos, is leading positive efforts to promote tolerance and accountability in response to HIV through constructive use of the media.  Panos continues to equip these men with effective tools to expand their voices and concerns so that they can be heard across Jamaica.

Progress will continue to be hampered until we include all people to achieve an AIDS-free generation.  Each of us must do our part to promote inclusivity, celebrate diversity, and eliminate stigma and dehumanizing stereotypes.

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