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A “Conference of Parties” to Face Climate Change

Eric Postel is assistant administrator the Bureau of Economic Growth, Education and Environment

Eric Postel is assistant administrator the Bureau of Economic Growth, Education and Environment

I’m here in Warsaw at the 19th so-called “Conference of the Parties” – basically every nation is represented plus all kinds of interested NGOs and private sector companies to work on global climate change issues. USAID participates robustly for three reasons.

First, we come to assist our Department of State colleagues in the negotiations. These COP meetings are very big. To accommodate everybody, COP19 is being held inside Poland’s national soccer stadium. On five levels. Every concourse is filled with temporarily-built meeting rooms, booths, press facilities, work stations, etc. Most skyboxes have been converted to offices.

The playing field has been covered over with enormous tents serving as temporary meeting halls for the plenary sessions. At any one time there are dozens of meetings negotiating different aspects of climate change initiatives. To cover them all, the State Department asks other U.S. Government climate change experts, including USAID experts, to join in the effort.

Second, we are here to learn more about how nations are facing climate change so that we are better able to fulfill our development mission. The COP represents a very efficient way of interacting with many other governments and members of civil society to learn about their successes, failures, concerns, and future plans. For example, a session on Fast Start Finance (FSF) was held today. Nine of the developed countries that collectively committed to providing $30 billion in public finance to developing countries for climate action between 2010 and 2012, including the United States, spoke about lessons learned during the period.

19th "Conference of the Parties in Warsaw, Poland. Photo credit: USAID

19th “Conference of the Parties in Warsaw, Poland. Photo credit: USAID

The good news is we all met our commitments: from Liechtenstein’s $700,000 to the United States’ $7.4 billion. The interesting part was to hear each country talk about lessons learned. I was struck by the parallels between climate assistance and “Aid for Trade” in WTO meetings I have attended. Aid for Trade discussions have evolved over the years, moving beyond inputs like dollars spent, and starting to grapple with outcomes, aid effectiveness, and private sector engagement. I can already see climate finance headed in the same direction.

These lessons will help us improve our programs at USAID. Today’s discussion gave me fresh insight into one of the challenges USAID is facing in continuing to develop good outcome measures for our adaptation work with developing countries. With workable adaption metrics, the global community could be in a position to shift the conversation from inputs to outcomes — a place we surely want to be.

Third, USAID staff come to climate talks to tell the rest of the world about the good results we are getting with the effective deployment of limited U.S. resources. Telling our story is important – so the rest of the world knows the U.S. is engaged in these issues as a good global citizen. For example, I will moderate a panel tomorrow that focuses on projects working to conserve the planet’s precious forests. A Colombian panelist will talk about a project, funded in part by USAID, working with 29 autonomous communities – Afro-Colombian Councils and Indigenous Reserves – to conserve more than 1 million hectares in the Colombian Pacific, one of the most bio-diverse areas in the world. Another effort we will discuss is the Tropical Forest Alliance 2020 (TFA 2020) – a new public-private partnership committed to addressing the global drivers of deforestation by reducing tropical deforestation associated with commodities such as palm oil, soy, beef, and paper and pulp. TFA 2020 has already attracted six major new partners – the Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom, World Resources Institute, Conservation International, and IDH Sustainable Trade Initiative. These partners have joined the United States and the Consumer Goods Forum, a global network of more than 400 companies with over $3 trillion in annual sales. TFA 2020 shows how far we have already come and where we are headed.

So, there are lots of reasons to be here representing the United States and lots to get done.

Reclaiming Refuse to Help Generate Reliable Power

This originally appeared in Feed the Future newsletter

Energy and agriculture are closely linked: reliable access to affordable power is a key component to developing a country’s agriculture sector and giving agriculture-based businesses a chance to grow. That’s why Feed the Future is working in Liberia to reverse decades of devastating civil conflict and rebuild a sustainable energy infrastructure that can support better market opportunities for smallholder farmers and agricultural processors.

After fourteen years of war, all sectors of Liberia’s economy were heavily damaged. By the end of the conflict in 2003, Liberia was not producing a single kilowatt of electricity for the entire country, and even today, only about 10 percent of the capital city of Monrovia is on the public electric grid. Outlying rural communities depend on privately owned gasoline or diesel-driven generators for their electricity, which makes Liberia one of the most expensive and environmentally unfriendly electricity generation systems in the world.

To address this serious challenge to development, Feed the Future is working to expand the use of renewable energy to rural areas of Liberia where agriculture is concentrated. Since June 2013, the U.S. Agency for International Development’s program to support Liberia’s energy sector and its flagship Feed the Future program in the country have been working with the Government of Liberia and local partners to establish a biomass energy center that can turn palm oil, palm nut and coconut shell byproducts, among other types of organic refuse, into an affordable and reliable supply of electricity. The pilot center is based at the Booker Washington Institute (BWI), Liberia’s first vocational and agricultural school.

Biofuels not only have the potential to displace carbon emissions from fossil fuels that contribute to climate change, but they are also significantly more accessible to smallholder farmers in remote rural areas who are already growing the crops (like palm and coconut) whose byproducts can be converted into fuel through a process called gasifying. With the right infrastructure, organic biomass can supplement the use of fossil fuel to help bring costs down in the agriculture sector. The gasifiers have already allowed BWI to complement its other sources of energy with renewable energy.

This innovative technology shows promise for agricultural processors in particular who cannot regularly afford costly fossil fuel for generators to power processing equipment. As the model is increasingly adopted in Liberia, Feed the Future will promote private sector investment that can expand access to affordable and renewable energy for some of Liberia’s most vulnerable populations.

Resources:

Video of the Week: Adapting to Melting Glaciers: A Partnership Approach

Through the USAID-supported High Mountain Partnership (HiMAP), Peru and Nepal are addressing the impacts and risks of rapidly melting glaciers in high mountain areas. The HiMAP brings scientists, governments officials, and local people together to share lessons learned on managing high-risk, high-impact floods caused by rapidly melting glaciers.

Learn more about USAID’s work in climate change and promotion of development based on climate-smart planning and clean technologies.

Behind the Scenes: Interview with Andrew Hoell on Dryness Conditions in East Africa

This blog is part of an interview blog series called “Behind the Scenes.” It includes interviews with USAID leaders, program implementers, Mission Directors, and development issue experts who help fulfill USAID’s mission. They are a casual behind-the-scenes look into USAID’s daily effort to deliver economic, development and humanitarian assistance around the world — and the results we’ve seen.

When did you first become interested in climate research?

New England snow storms sparked my interest in weather at a young age. As an undergraduate, I attended the University of Massachusetts to study Meteorology. During my second year as an undergraduate, I became interested in how weather patterns behaved over the entire globe on longer timescales, climate time scales. I attended graduate school at the University of Massachusetts and worked on projects that linked Central Asia climate to the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. The regional atmospheric circulations of Central Asia, the Middle East and East Africa are intertwined, so those are now my regions of focus.

Can you talk a little bit about how UC Santa Barbara and FEWS NET work together to explain the broader concept of food security?

I can only speak to the climate side at UC Santa Barbara. At UC Santa Barbara, we’re interested in how rainfall has recently changed over East Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia and what climate features have forced those changes. We take the lessons that we’ve learned from the recent changes and we draw conclusions about how the climate will change in the future.

When you first began researching climatic weather patterns in the Western Pacific Ocean, did you have any idea that your work would help guide future international development decision making?

I’ve been researching the links between the tropical western Pacific Ocean and the global climate since about 2006, my first year of graduate school. Initially, graduate students, including me, are usually focused on learning or pleasing their advisor. In 2008, I met Chris Funk of the Climate Hazards Group at UCSB, and we collaborated on a paper that investigated the links between the Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures and East African climate and how those links influence food security. This was the first time I considered that my work might guide international development and decision making.

What was the motivation for writing about drying conditions in the East Africa Horn? What did you and your team seek to explain?

Our overarching goal is to understand how climate variability influences East Africa. This paper is a very brief review that links recent changes in East African climate (since the late 1990s) to an abrupt warming in west Pacific sea surface temperatures. The video below explains more.

What sorts of technology and techniques did you use in this study?

In the beginning of our study, we show how the climate from 1999 until recently has behaved in terms of East African rainfall and tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures. From this, we were able to show that (at least) superficially that East Africa rainfall and tropical Indo-west Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures could be related.

In the second part of our study, we use an atmospheric model forced by observed sea surface temperatures to confirm that west Pacific sea surface temperature changes were influencing East African rainfall. The study can be found here (Article 15).

What’s next for you and your team? How will you continue to work with FEWS NET to explain climate patterns and its effects on food security?

Our team will continue to investigate what factors influence climate variability over East Africa, the Middle East (specifically Yemen) and Central Asia. We focus on a wide variety of time scales, from individual seasons to multiple decades. We are most concerned with changes on decadal time scales because they are most important to long-term food and water security. However, our understanding of climate variability for individual seasons is also very important because it is this climate variability that primarily forces short-term droughts and famines (e.g. 2010/2011 over East Africa).

Interested in learning more about one of USAID’s programs or want to hear from one of USAID’s leaders? We want to know! Please provide your suggestions below.

USAID in the News

AllAfrica reported on a newly-announced USAID partnership with the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund USA and the Nelson Mandela Children’s Hospital Trust, which is aimed at supporting the proposed Nelson Mandela Children’s Hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. The new hospital, scheduled to open in June 2015, will provide high-quality medical care to children regardless of their social or economic status.

A statue of Nelson Mandela was unveiled on Sep. 21, 2013 at the Embassy of South Africa in Washington, DC. Photo credit: USAID

A statue of Nelson Mandela was unveiled on Sep. 21, 2013 at the Embassy of South Africa in Washington, DC. Photo credit: USAID

The Express Tribune featured a story about the fourth National Youth Peace Festival in Lahore, Pakistan, which is being supported in part by USAID. The organizers expects to see 500 young people from across Pakistan attend the festival, the theme of which is “One Nation, One Agenda; Democracy and Peace.” Politicians will attend the festival in hopes of engaging youth by taking up issues that are relevant to them.

Jamaica Observer reported USAID’s tool donation  to 105 cocoa farmers in Jamaica as a part of a two-year project, which focuses on “protecting rural lives, livelihoods and ecosystems” in communities affected by climate change. The tools will be used by farmers to combat the negative effects of climate change on agriculture.

Vibe Ghana detailed USAID efforts to support the Western Regional Health Directorate in Ghana. USAID contributions to the health directorate include training, performance-based grants, and equipment that will be distributed throughout district hospitals and health care centers. Dr. Edward Bonko, Leader of the Focus Region Health Project of USAID, explained that the efforts would assist with “maternal, reproductive and child health, HIV/AIDS and malaria preventions and neonatal care” in the Western Region.

Pakistan’s The Nation reported on the visit of a group of U.S. government officials, including USAID Mission Director for Pakistan Gregory Gottleib, to the Jamshoro Thermal Power Station. The power plant will provide an additional 270 megawatts of power to the national grid.  In addition to the Jamshoro power plant, USAID is working to rehabilitate thermal plants in Muzaffargarh and Guddu and a hydro-plant in Tarbela.

The website OpenEqualFree detailed a USAID effort to educate student gardeners in Liberia through the Advancing Youth Project—a partnership with Liberia’s Ministry of Education and community organizations that offers “alternative basic education services and entrepreneurship training for young people across Liberia.” The initiative will provide agricultural experts to train students to grow their own gardens and teach them the about agribusiness as a possible career choice.

The Hill featured a piece written by Representatives Albio Sires and Mario Diaz-Balart spotlighting USAID efforts to combat tuberculosis. The story, which describes legislation geared toward encouraging development of health care products in low-resource health systems, includes an overview of USAID’s contributions in the area of research and development in global health, saying, “As a leading funder of breakthrough products for global health, USAID is a key partner in later-stage research that ensures the development of safe and effective health tools.”

From the Field in Timor-Leste: Giving Communities a Voice in Conservation

It was a bright morning as nearly 200 people gathered in Manatuto, Timor-Leste, to share ideas about how to conserve their community’s marine resources with a team from USAID’s Coral Triangle Support Partnership. Being lucky enough to attend, I saw firsthand how this meeting of the minds linked program staff from Conservation International — USAID’s implementing partner — with the perspectives of one coastal community.

Through the Coral Triangle Support Partnership, USAID is supporting Timor-Leste’s efforts to anticipate and adapt to climate change and natural disasters, especially in coastal communities. The Timorese government is creating protected areas, called “no-take zones,” where fishing is prohibited. The goal is for fish to grow to healthy sizes, improving the chances that the species will survive. This is important not only for Timor-Leste’s fisheries, but also global fisheries. The highest fish diversity on the planet is in Southeast Asia.

Ruy Pinto, a representative from the Coral Triangle Support Partnership, shows fisherman Feliz Fernandes how to use dive equipment during a community meeting in Manatuto. Photo credit: Cristovão Guterres, USAID/Timor-Leste

Ruy Pinto, a representative from the Coral Triangle Support Partnership, shows fisherman Feliz Fernandes how to use dive equipment during a community meeting in Manatuto. Photo credit: Cristovão Guterres, USAID/Timor-Leste

Community participation in and support for this process is crucial, because so many people depend on the marine environment for income. At the meeting in Manatuto, fishermen, community leaders, women and representatives from local government raised concerns about what would happen when the fishing areas closed. They needed to be sure they could support their families. Representatives from USAID and Conservation International explained that only certain areas identified for replenishment of fish stocks would be closed, and only for a period of three years, and that during this time other areas would remain open for fishing. By the end of the meeting, there was a mutual understanding that fishing could not happen in these protected areas in order to allow the fish to regain their numbers and remain plentiful for future generations, but that in the meantime, people could still catch fish in other areas to support their families.

Timor-Leste is home to a rich variety of marine life and sits within the Coral Triangle, one of the most important areas in the world for coral and marine biodiversity. Covering just two percent of the global ocean, the Coral Triangle contains 75 percent of all coral species and 35 percent of the world’s coral reefs. In Manatuto, one of the country’s most biologically diverse areas, most people rely on fishing for their livelihoods. Unfortunately, some fishing practices damage the coral reefs and wildlife. Along with the growing effects of climate change, such practices place immense pressure on an already fragile environment.

By acknowledging community concerns and asking for their input, USAID and Conservation International are able to integrate local knowledge and customs into their work with the Timorese government. Discussions like this one strengthen community-government relationships and help establish community-based management systems that align with customary laws, called Tara Bandu, which guide people’s interactions with one another and with the environment. In the Tara Bandu process, communities set out guidelines for harvesting natural resources and the penalties for those who violate them.

“No-take zones” at Nino Koni Santana National Park in Timor-Leste. Photo credit: Cristovão Guterres, USAID/Timor-Leste

“No-take zones” at Nino Koni Santana National Park in Timor-Leste. Photo credit: Cristovão Guterres, USAID/Timor-Leste

As a result, the Timorese government’s National Plan of Action has the support of the people who are central to successful marine management practices. The plan sets out how Timor-Leste government will work contribute to the regional goals of the Coral Triangle Initiative.

One Manatuto fisherman, Feliz Fernandes, shared his excitement with me. “This meeting was very important,” he said, “so that we could hear directly from the teams how to protect our marine resources, so that in the future we can still have new species that may be already gone around the world.” Thinking about the program team’s scuba demonstration, he went on to say that he hopes to someday have his own scuba equipment, “so I can directly go and see the development of our marine resources in the protected areas.”

As a citizen of Timor-Leste, I share Feliz’s outlook. With USAID’s support, I hope my country will continue exploring these ideas to help communities in coastal areas conserve essential natural resources.

Learn more information about the Coral Triangle Support Partnership and USAID’s work in Timor-Leste.

PEER Program Impact: Addressing Global Coral Reef Health through Science and Collaboration

Indonesia lies at the center of the most diverse ecosystems of the world: the Coral Triangle. Covering just two percent of the global ocean, the Coral Triangle contains 75 percent of all coral species and 35 percent of the world’s coral reefs. It serves as a home and breeding ground for hundreds of thousands of fish and animals contributing to the food supply of the people living in the region and global fisheries.

Healthy coral reefs support commercial and subsistence fisheries, as well as jobs and businesses that support tourism and recreation. The coral reef structure also buffers shorelines against waves, storms and floods, helping to prevent loss of life, property damage and erosion.

Yellow band disease in Wanci Island. Photo credit: Courtney Couch

Yellow band disease in Wanci Island. Photo credit: Courtney Couch

Often, these coral reefs and sea creatures are referred to as the 21st century medicine cabinets because they are important sources of new medicines being developed to treat cancer, arthritis, human bacterial infections, heart disease, viruses and other diseases.

However, in recent years coral reefs have increasingly come under threat from climate change, overfishing, pollution and disease. In this region alone, more than 120 million people rely on reefs for their economic livelihood. Without long-term management of coral reef health, both the ecosystem and its benefactors face an uncertain future.

To tackle complex global issues such as this, USAID is tapping into the vast potential of the science and technology sector. In 2011, in conjunction with the National Science Foundation (NSF), USAID announced the Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) program. The program, administered by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, funds collaborative research partnerships between developing country scientists and NSF-funded American scientists. On behalf of the American people, USAID supports research to help conserve one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet and ensure the plants, fish animals and the many important roles of the coral reef are maintained for this and future generations.

Line transect in Wakatobi island. Photo credit: Courtney Couch

Line transect in Wakatobi island. Photo credit: Courtney Couch

PEER project researchers Dr. Jamaluddin Jompa, one of Indonesia’s prominent coral reef scientists and Director of the Center for Coral Reef Research at Hasanuddin University, and U.S. partner Dr. Drew Harvell, Associate Director for Environment at Cornell University’s Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future, have set out to study the health of Indonesia’s coral reefs. The team measures declines in coral health by the prevalence of coral disease. Coral diseases, which have been on the increase worldwide since the 1970s, sometimes look like mold or rust and other times like the bleached-white bones of skeletons. They are key indicators of whether the reef ecosystem is out of balance.

The project aims to assess the impact of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) on reef resilience and coral disease containment. These no-fish reserves, which are areas protected under the Indonesian Government’s Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program (COREMAP), serve as a sanctuary for marine life. This project will provide empirical data to show the importance of these preservation and conservation efforts. “We hope to provide additional evidence that MPAs have high impacts for the future,” said Dr. Jompa.

To ensure the reefs’ health and sustainability, long-term planning and management is key.

Focusing on local, manageable factors such as overfishing and coastal pollution, the team is developing new microbiological methods to better study their impacts—techniques which they hope will become incorporated into the COREMAP survey structure. Dr. Harvell asserts that with their findings, they will be able to evaluate how best to preserve nature while providing sustainable benefits to local communities.

The PEER program aims not only to fund researcher efforts with global impact but also to enhance scientific exchange and engagement. According to Drs. Harvell and Jompa, the collaboration has been very fruitful. For example, PEER mentoring and training has given Indonesian student researchers exposure to international science networks and state-of-the-art techniques while their American counterparts have gained international research experience.

Impacts can be seen in the classroom as well. Data gathered during the project have improved coral health case studies and curriculum in the Marine Science Department at Hasanuddin University. “As more and more students are becoming interested in coral reef education, we are building that knowledge foundation and investing in future generations,” said Dr. Jompa.

This PEER-funded project is part of a much larger effort to establish patterns of coral health worldwide. In conjunction with scientists from Australia, the team has been working on creating a larger Pacific network of coral health with comprehensive sustainability plans. Ultimately, said Dr. Jompa, “As the center of global marine biodiversity, these coral reefs belong not only to Indonesia, but to the world.”

Learn more about the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) in the Philippines, which was held on Aug. 14. 

 

Photo of the Week: Market Linkages in Bangladesh

Bangladesh

USAID creates market linkages to sustain traditional weaving of indigenous women. USAID’s environment activity, the Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL), improves diversified livelihoods that are environmentally sustainable and resilient to climate change. USAID has worked with the Government of Bangladesh and local communities to better manage and conserve Bangladesh’s natural resources and biodiversity since 1998. More resilient livelihoods and ecosystems will help Bangladesh meet development goals and move along the path to becoming a healthy, prosperous country. CREL is implemented by Winrock International.

Learn more about our Mission of the Month: USAID Bangladesh.

Like USAID Bangladesh on Facebook and follow @USAID_BD and #MissionofMonth on Twitter for ongoing updates!

Creating Partners in Conservation in Rwanda

Dr. Jane Goodall and the Critical Role of Development in Environmental Conservation

Tucked in the corner of southwestern Rwanda, along the borders of Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo and about four hours outside of Rwanda’s capital city is one of the most beautiful places in the world, Nyungwe Forest National Park.

Dr. Jane Goodall in Nyungwe. Photo Credit: USAID

Officially established as a national park in 2004, Nyungwe is a moist, cool rainforest that is home to a wide variety of rare plants and animals, including more than 13 different primates, 275 birds, and 1,000 plants, some of which have only been found in Nyungwe.

This past week, we had opportunity to welcome a very special guest visiting the park for the very first time — Dr. Jane Goodall.

Dr. Goodall is the famed primatologist who has dedicated her life to studying chimpanzees and traveling around the world telling people about the importance of conservation. Even at nearly 80 years old, she literally never stays in the same place for more than three weeks at a time. Dr. Goodall came to Rwanda to highlight the importance of protecting natural resources like Nyungwe and to explore future partnerships in conservation education between her organization, the Jane Goodall Institute, and local and international organizations already working in the Park.

During her visit, we had the opportunity to hear to her speak to park staff. What really stuck out was the emphasis she placed on the critical linkage between community development and conservation efforts. They go hand and hand.

“The poverty of people is one of the biggest problems for the environment. People must choose between eating today by destroying nature, or starving.” She acknowledged that anyone faced with that choice would choose food, but when you first acknowledge and meet the needs of people, they then “become your partners in conservation.”

Dr. Goodall also challenged us to think a bit deeper and more long-term. If we don’t act, what happens when all of the natural resources are gone? What happens when animals go extinct or water sources have dried up because we didn’t protect the forests that sheltered them? History tells us the unfortunate truth: in many cases, conflict ensues.

Here’s a real life example. Nyungwe supplies 70 percent of Rwanda’s water and is a source of water for people who live as far north as Egypt. What would happen if Nyungwe were destroyed and the water was all gone? Dr. Goodall was blunt: “If water runs out in Nyungwe, people will pick up guns.”

Dr. Jane Goodall in Rwanda. Photo Credit: USAID

But when investing in the environment, we must also invest in people. We need to teach people about the importance of conservation, and more importantly help individuals and communities maintain their livelihoods in sustainable ways.

USAID has been working in Nyungwe since the mid-1980s. Our work there has helped to build an eco-tourism industry through activities like trail maintenance, training park guides, and creating partnerships with the private sector to invest in things like lodging around the park. We’re also working with communities living in and around Nyungwe to help them earn steady incomes in ways that don’t deplete the park’s resources.

One community just outside the park entrance has formed a cooperative and created what they call a “cultural village,” giving visitors another place to stop and a fascinating peek into Rwandan culture. The community has replicated traditional Rwandan houses (including the King’s Palace) where you can stay overnight, see traditional dance performances, and have a snack with a spectacular view of the forest. The community is doing quite well, and many of the cooperative members have said that instances of villagers engaging in activities like poaching for income has decreased as a result.

Dr. Goodall’s guidance about the necessity of pairing environmental conservation with development rings true in places like Nyungwe National Park as well as the communities we all live in. And as Dr. Goodall stressed – in her seemingly endless optimism – it’s up to us: “Every single one of us matters, every single one of us has a role, and every single one of us can make a difference.”

 

 

Global Tiger Day

Global Tiger Day is an opportunity every July 29th to raise awareness of the need to protect our last remaining tigers for future generations.

A tiger in Nepal. Photo Credit: USAID

The greatest threat to tiger survival is poaching. Trafficking of wildlife is the third largest area of illegal trade after arms and drugs, often for organized crime and terrorist organizations. It also directly harms the environment and natural resources as wildlife populations decline and ecosystems are altered.

USAID is working in several countries across Asia to reverse this devastating trend.

In Indonesia, the United States is partnering with four local NGOs in Sumatra to protect Sumatran tigers from poaching, habitat degradation and conflict with humans – the most serious threats to their survival. We’re also working to preserve habitats for a number of other Sumatran species, including orangutans, elephants and rhinos, through better forestry management. The population of Sumatran tigers is estimated to be as low as 250 tigers.

In Nepal, we’re working to create a new international standard for wildlife conservation by taking conservation genetics to a whole new level. A national DNA database being created with support from USAID catalogues extremely detailed genetic data on the endangered Bengal tigers, so that law enforcement agencies can determine where confiscated parts might have originated and crack down on an entire smuggling operation. And, it helps conservationists and researchers in their work to protect the animals and their habitats.

USAID is also a partner in INTERPOL’s Project Predator initiative. Launched in November 2011, this partnership unites the efforts of police, customs and wildlife officials in support of enhanced governance and law enforcement capacity in the 13 countries in Asia where wild tigers can still be found. Last year during one Project Predator operation in Bhutan, China, India and Nepal, officials arrested over 50 individuals and confiscated big cat skins, body parts and other wildlife products. To learn more, visit INTERPOL’s Project Predator website.

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