Check out this incredible video on opportunities created, lives transformed in Nepal. Over the past five years, USAID’s Education for Income Generation program has helped tens of thousands of youth not only find skills-based work at home but also become employers themselves. Today, 74,000 disadvantaged youth are reaping benefits, with higher incomes, raised living standards, and substantially increased food security.
Archives for Education and Universities
Guest author Kadiatou Coulibaly, Ph.D. is the World Education Director of the Ambassadors’ Girls’ Scholarship Program (AGSP). AGSP was funded by USAID from October 2004 through September 2011 as part of the U.S. Africa Education Initiative. World Education, Inc. implemented AGSP in 13 countries in West Africa.
Today, October 11, the world is acknowledging the importance of the girl child. Girls are traditionally the last to receive an education, the last to be fed at the table, and on the whole seen as less valuable than boys. Over the past few years, while managing the USAID-funded Ambassador’s Girls’ Scholarship Program, however, I have seen a dramatic shift in attitudes.
In my view there is no development program more important or sustainable for the long-term than education – and as girls are the ones whose education has been long neglected, that is the most effective place to put education dollars. Whole communities are transformed. The international community has come to recognize this, although there are still many barriers to girls’ education, and in fact to gender equality throughout the world.
It may appear to the outside, to the donor countries, that traditional views among communities and parents are one of those barriers. But that debate is over in the 13 countries where we implemented AGSP. Huge strides were made in raising awareness of the importance of girls’ education. Parents were happy when they saw that school changed completely the girls’ outlook on life.
Educated girls have more resources. They have better opportunities, better health, and a better chance at life. They are able to earn more money and care for themselves, their children, their entire families and the environment. Parents have said to me, “If you educate your daughter and she gets a job – she thinks of you. She will always help you.”
And when you educate girls, you empower the whole community beyond the girl. It can be surprising, the depth of the effect on the community – with results even beyond what is intended.
When World Education was implementing AGSP to send disadvantaged girls to school, we worked in partnership with local organizations. At times we needed to help those groups build capacity so they would have the skills to manage aspects of the program. In Timbuktu, for example, we strengthened women’s groups set up under WEI’s previous program to help mothers become more involved in their children’s education. At the time, the women in the community did not participate in anything public. Their circle of influence was very small. We organized these Mother’s Associations, and then helped to build their capacity in skills such as mentoring, administration and financial management.
In Timbuktu, the Mothers’ Association was in charge of procurement of all scholarship needs, such as books, uniforms and supplies. If there was any problem, such as teachers not showing up to teach – a regular occurrence – they knew who to contact and handled it. It was an amazing change in the role of women in those communities. The AGSP program helped nurture the Mothers’ Association. The women in these groups became mentors to the scholarship students. Men came to listen to the women, while in the past, the women would not even have been asked for their opinion. Respect for women trickled upward from the education of girls.
It has been a joy to see the changing attitude of parents and whole communities as they have come to realize the great advantages of sending their girls to school. In every community where we worked, we could see the transformation. Barriers remain, but I am pleased to say that in places where people have seen the benefits, community resistance is no longer one of them.
Regina Anek, a Deputy Director for Gender at South Sudan’s Ministry of Education in Eastern Equatoria state, just saved a 14-year-old girl from an early, forced marriage. She was empowered to intervene as a result of a series of trainings she received from a USAID-supported girls education program that provides mentoring training to teachers and education officials to encourage girls not only to enroll in but also to complete secondary school.
USAID’s Gender Equity through Education Program has strengthened the education system by addressing financial and infrastructure barriers, social and cultural barriers, and institutional barriers to gender parity in education, through scholarships; advocacy, community mobilization, and mentoring; and institutional support. The mentoring training gave Regina skills to intervene in situations where girls face communal pressure to drop out of school to get married.
“I was informed that a student from one of the schools in my state was about to be married off, and I hurried to convene a meeting with the family and community to stop the matter,” Regina explained. “Meanwhile, I asked the parents to allow me to accommodate the girl at my house so that she could continue attending school as we resolved her marriage case.” Regina added that after weeks of negotiating and educating the girl’s parents and community leaders on the importance of an educated girl to the family and society as a whole, the girl was allowed to return home and continue with school.
These USAID-supported mentoring activities are meant to support girls within and outside of the educational structure to address broader social and cultural issues that keep girls from completing their education.
Survey data indicate that while 30 percent of boys in South Sudan complete the eight-year primary cycle, only 17 percent of girls do. The legacy of war in South Sudan is one factor, but girls’ education is also hampered by other social, cultural and financial barriers that hinder them from either enrolling in or staying in school.
One cultural barrier is early marriage. Persistent poverty in communities has been cited as a major reason that parents give their daughters in marriage in exchange for some financial security for the family, but some cultural norms also dictate marriage readiness for girls as young as 13. The community at school and outside of school stigmatizes older girls in school, which adversely affects their school attendance. With USAID’s mentoring support and some tuition stipend, many girls who were married at an early age are able to return and complete secondary school.
USAID’s efforts in supporting girls’ education in South Sudan date back to 2002, when scholarship support was provided to girls to complete secondary school and join teacher training institutes. This was aimed at encouraging more women to join the teaching profession, because research indicates that targeted recruitment of women has a correlation with girls completing school. USAID provided more than 9,000 scholarships through this program to girls and disadvantaged boys in secondary school and more than 4,400 scholarships to students in teacher training institutes in South Sudan and the “Three Areas” on the Sudan-South Sudan border (Abyei, Blue Nile, and Southern Kordofan).
I live in the Zaragoza region, one of the poorest areas in central El Salvador. We have limited economic development opportunities for our people, yet one of the highest rates of population density in the country. While grappling with poverty, our municipality must also deal with gang activity and school violence.
In order to respond to this situation, my school joined with 12 other schools to form a cluster under the Ministry of Education’s Integrated System for Full Time School (SI-EITP, its acronym in Spanish). SI-EITP is supported by USAID/El Salvador’s Strengthening Basic Education Program.
We share limited resources so that we can equitably offer educational and extracurricular services to all students, especially those who are at risk of joining a gang or dropping out of school. For example, my school shares its sports auditorium with all 1,670 students coming from those 12 schools. The group of schools provides extracurricular activities in areas such as technology, baking, dressmaking skills, school gardens, art, culture, sports and recreation. Because of these activities, our students are more excited to attend school and learn new skills.
Teachers are also using new resources, materials, and techniques like more group work that allow students to more actively participate in their lessons. The response from students has been very positive. The lessons have been so successful that students from the Barillo school, who previously had spotty attendance, said that they were excited to go to school each day.
And this integrated system doesn’t end at the school gate. Parents, teachers and school principals all participate in the school cluster. For instance, parents are walking to school with their children every day, as they need to cross dangerous areas where gangs are prevalent.
School principals are also working together in new ways. Because of SI-EITP, the principals of the Corralito and Canton Guadalupe schools collaborated to improve transportation for their students. As a result, 56 students who finished sixth grade, but did not have a secondary school close to their home, are now able to travel to neighboring secondary schools and continue their education.
With the support of the Ministry, USAID and its implementers, we have made a lot of progress but we must acknowledge the leadership of the students. When the educators were worried about gang clashes, the student governments mitigated our concerns. They formed a “Peace Band” with participants from all of the schools. Today the Peace Band has 300 members whose purpose is to promote healthy living and a culture of peace. We are proud to say that, not only are the student working hard to reach their own potential, they are showing real leadership skills and giving back to the community.
We all have a deadline in 2015 that can be easily lost amid our busy day-to-days and crowded lists of to-dos.
In 2000,189 nations made a promise to free people from extreme poverty and to extend hope and opportunity to millions across the developing world – all by 2015. Under the United Nation’s umbrella of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), the 189 countries committed to eight development goals that were ambitious in scale and yet vital.
That’s why this week, USAID and our counterparts at the UK Department for International Development are once again drawing attention to the MDGs at an event in New York,during the UN General Assembly.
The good news is that great progress is being made towards achieving the MDGs, and the global community can be inspired by the innovations and successes we are seeing around the world.
Poverty has been cut by 50 percent globally and the proportion of people with no safe drinking water has been cut in half, ahead of the 2015 deadline..
As evidenced at the New York event this week, USAID is also making a significant contribution to meet the MDG’s:
- In El Salvador, we work with the Salvadoran Ministry of Education to not only improve the quality of teaching and learning, but also partner with local communities to keep students in school and to recruit children who were not attending classes. (MDG 2)
- In Afghanistan, we work with the Government to build capacity in its Ministry of Health, among midwives, and in local hospitals, and have helped to increase health coverage from eight percent to over 60 percent of the people over ten years and helped the country realize an incredible drop in infant, child and maternal mortality rates. (MDG 4 and 5)
- In Indonesia, where only 40 percent of citizens receive water from a household tap, we worked to vastly improve the water and sanitation systems. While our effort has scaled down, the program legacy lives on in private and public sectors’ support for clean water and sanitation, and proof that local and the central governments are willing to commit funds to the utilities to improve performance and expand services if a clear and compelling justification is presented. (MDG 7)
Still, with only 15 months until the deadline we still have the other six goals to meet. USAID is applying its resources more strategically than ever to enable countries to achieve the MDGs. As outlined in USAID’s County Development Coordination Strategies, we are implementing the President’s Policy Directive on Global Development by focusing on those development imperatives that are priorities for the host country and USAID investment can make a difference. These strategies are informed by evidence, rather than anecdote and lead to stronger projects designed in cooperation with host country counterparts, including government and civil society.
The challenges involved in meeting the MDGs by 2015 remain daunting, yet USAID along with our global partners are making significant strides. Using breakthrough innovations, integrated approaches, and strategic partnerships we can achieve unprecedented progress in the years to come.
I am excited to have just returned from the kick-off of the Equal Futures Partnership to expand women’s opportunities around the world. The event was held in New York City and part of a number of events USAID is participating in during the United Nations General Assembly this week.
The world has made significant strides in expanding opportunity for women and girls; in the U.S., we just celebrated 40 years of Title IX, an act of Congress that changed the lives of many in my generation by enabling girls to have equal access to education playing sports. Equal access to sports in schools, particularly, taught many of us how to be fierce competitors and learn valuable lessons in team building.
Yet more work is needed to tackle the global gender inequality. Last week, I met in London with donors on this very topic where researchers discussed a number of startlingly facts:
- In 2011, women held only 19 percent of parliamentary seats worldwide, while less than five percent of heads of state and government were women.
- While in the past 25 years, women have increasingly joined the labor market, the World Bank’s 2012 World Development Report describes “pervasive and persistent gender differences” in productivity and earnings across sectors and jobs.
- Though women are 43 percent of the agriculture labor force and undertake many unpaid activities, they own just a tiny fraction of land worldwide.
These realities demand an urgent response.
Building on President Obama’s challenge a year ago at UNGA, the United States government has partnered in a new international effort to break down barriers to women’s political participation and economic empowerment. The goal of the Equal Futures Partnership is to realize women’s human rights by expanding opportunity for women and girls to fully participate in public life and drive inclusive economic growth in our countries.
Through this partnership, the countries of Senegal, Benin, Jordan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Tunisia, Peru, Denmark, Finland, Australia and the European Union are all making new commitments to action, and will consult with national stakeholders inside and outside government, including civil society, multilateral organizations including UN Women and the World Bank, and the private sector, to identify and overcome key barriers to women’s political and economic participation. This partnership promises to be groundbreaking not only for the countries involved but also for those who are watching its implementation.
USAID and its Center for Excellence on Democracy, Human Rights and Governance stands by to provide assistance to these countries as well as many others throughout the world as they work to advance women’s political participation and economic empowerment.
This is thrilling work that helps make the promise of development real for everyone–not just a privileged few.
As part of USAID’s Fall Semester, we will host an online book club for our readers this fall. The Impact Blog will post suggestions from our senior experts at USAID to suggest a book on important issues in international development. We’ll provide you and your book club with the reading suggestions and discussion questions, and you tell us what you think! Our fall reading list will explore solutions to the most pressing global challenges in international development—mobile solutions, poverty, hunger, health, economic growth, and agriculture.
This week’s choice comes from: USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah
Book: A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World, by Gregory Clark
Synopsis: The source of human progress has long been a subject of debate. What makes rich countries rich, and poor countries poor? In the this book, University of California, Davis, Economist Gregory Clark offers a provocative take on the age-old question, arguing that it was culture—rather than geography, natural resources or centuries of exploitation—that left some parts of the globe behind.
According to Clark, relative stability and effective workforces enabled certain societies to take better advantage of the Industrial Revolution’s new technologies and opportunities. Those countries with lax systems or undisciplined workers lost ground, and stayed there.
Clark’s book is skeptical of whether the poorest parts of the world will ever achieve real progress. For development professionals, it offers up a challenge to the belief that outside intervention can help bridge the vast economic divide between rich and poor.
Review: This book impacted me because it shows how for hundreds, or even thousands, of years basic economic progress was largely stagnant. You didn’t have rapid compound increases in living standards until the Industrial Revolution when some countries and some societies got on a pathway towards growth – towards better health, longer life expectancy, higher income per person and more investment in education. Others remained on a slower-moving pathway.
That great divergence, and the study of it, is at the core of development. It is that divergence that we try to learn from and correct for. We define success in development as helping communities and countries get on that pathway towards improved health and education, and greater wealth creation.
I didn’t choose this book because I think it is the definitive story on development, but rather because I share its focus on core economic growth as the driver of divergence.
I disagree where Clark concludes that some societies failed to take advantage of the availability of modern technology because their cultures were antagonistic to development. With the right conditions in place, you can unlock a formidable work ethic from a range of different cultures and communities. The last 50 years have shown us that. By investing in local capacity and local institutions, we can leave a legacy of economic infrastructure, strong and capable leadership, and transparent, effective public and private sector institutions.
USAID’s partnerships in Latin America helped country after country develop strong institutions. The same can be said for South Korea. Unfortunately, there have been examples where aid and assistance have been provided in a manner that was not as sensitive to building lasting local capacity and institutions. This is true for all partners, not just our Agency. That’s why we’ve launched a program called USAID Forward, to refocus on working in a way that will create durable and sustained progress.
1. Do you agree with Clark that some societies failed to take advantage of the availability of modern technology because their cultures were antagonistic to development?
2. The Nobel prize-winning economist Robert Solow has said Clark does not take into account how institutional factors, such as cronyism, inequitable taxation and ineffectual government cripple development. What role do you think these institutional factors play?
3. Clark challenges how effective outside intervention can be in helping poor nations progress. Do you agree?
4. Regardless of why some nations have fallen behind, how do you think they can bridge that gap today?
5. Has your world view changed after reading this book and how?
Get Involved: Use the comments section of this blog post to share your answers, or tweet them to us at #fallsemester
According to experts, in the first grade children must learn how to read and understand what they read. In the second grade, they must improve their fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. With more fluency there is greater chance for children to understand what they have read. That’s why in countries that are are more advanced in education, there are set reading standards for children. In Latin America, children who finish second grade are supposed to read 60 words a minute. Watch this video to learn more about basic reading standards in Peru, and how young Peruvian children learn how to read.
When my daughter was younger, each night as I put her to bed, I read her a story. Some of our favorites included Make Way for Ducklings, Ping, and Ferdinand the Bull. Now that she is older and reading on her own, her appetite for books has become voracious. Evenings find our family’s noses buried in books strewn about the house. When, like many Americans, I think about how reading and literacy has impacted my life, I also think about my love of reading outside of school – my favorite books as a small kid, my mom walking us to the library over the summer, and rereading my all-time favorites so often that they became worn-out friends on my nightstand.
USAID wants to spark the love of reading throughout Central Asia, and foster it throughout families everywhere.
Over the last 5-10 years, growing evidence indicates that literacy levels in Central Asia are declining. As one Ministry of Education’s national strategy frankly and astutely points out, the level of education of older generations is higher than that of its youth, in part due to declining budgets and major reorganizations after the collapse of the Soviet Union. USAID anticipates continuing to work with Ministries of Education and international partners in Central Asia to improve children’s reading abilities, by fine-tuning educators’ reading instruction skills, involving communities, and increasing the use of local language reading materials. How can a family create a culture of reading at home amid a major shortage of books currently published in local languages? This is the type of change we are working on together.
Literacy is a cornerstone of a developed society, and a well-educated population is paramount to a developed nation. I hope that my daughter grows up in a world where everyone makes reading a part of family life, has access to an abundance of reading material, and has the time to learn to read “just for fun.”
We interviewed Karen Towers from our Latin America and Caribbean Bureau to discuss the state of education in the region.
1) It seems that Latin America and the Caribbean is doing better in education – is that true?
Yes and no. While it is true that access has increased, education quality is still a serious issue. In the early 1960s, one out of every five children in Latin America and the Caribbean was enrolled in the first grade, now 95% of nine years olds are enrolled in school. The problem is that children are not learning. UNESCO tests indicate that more than 1/3 of third graders cannot read at grade level. By the time these students reach the 6th grade, 20% will still be functionally illiterate.
1) Why are these literacy rates so low?
Many factors contribute to the low literacy rates, but primarily disorganized schools and poorly trained teachers. Teachers often only receive the barest guidance on what to teach and little or no training on how to teach it. In addition, there is almost a complete lack of accountability. Often there are no independent evaluations of schools and teachers have no clear standards against which to measure student’s performance. This video from Peru demonstrates some of problems with school performance for an average student in a public school in the region.
2) Why is early-grade literacy important to development in the region?
When children cannot read, it limits their ability to learn other subjects such as math or science and also impacts their ability to participate in society in the long run. Studies have shown a correlation between literacy and voter participation and citizen security. In addition, learning outcomes have a directly impact a country’s economic growth. A 10% increase in the share of students reaching basic literacy translates into a 0.3 percentage point higher annual growth rate for that country.
3) What is USAID doing to improve early-grade literacy rates?
USAID’s new Global Education Strategy has made literacy a top development priority. By 2015, USAID aims to improve reading outcomes for some 100 million children across the globe. USAID programs include helping to develop teacher skills, introducing new technologies that facilitate learning, and improving tools to measure and assess children’s reading skills.
4) Where are USAID’s programs located in LAC?
USAID has education programs in 10 Latin American and Caribbean countries: Haiti, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Eastern Caribbean, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Peru.
5) What are the focus of these programs?
USAID programs are focused on improving reading by improving the 5 T’s:
- Teacher Technique – teaching teachers how to teach reading.
- Time Use – maximizing instructional time in the classroom.
- Texts – put appropriate books in the hands of children.
- Tongue – implement appropriate language policies and provide mother-tongue based instruction.
- Test – measure reading skills against a common standard.