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Let’s Make it Learning for All, Not Just Schooling for All

Cross-posted from the World Bank.

Submitted by Elizabeth King, Director of Education for the World Bank. Elizabeth blogs on Education for Global Development, at blogs.worldbank.org/education.

What a thrill I had this past Friday listening to (windows media) our World Bank President Bob Zoellick launch the Bank Group’s new Education Strategy 2020: Learning for All (pdf, 1.27mb). Having spent nearly 18 months traveling the world to consult with our partners (government, civil society, NGOs, development agencies) about the best experience and evidence of what works in education and about the role of the Bank Group in the next decade, I feel somewhat like I’ve given birth, in this case to a global framework for education which we believe is the right one for the coming decade.

What will our world look like in 2020? It’s anyone’s guess. But we must prepare our youth today for the world we hope to realize: A world in which people can escape the bonds of deprivation and disadvantage to become their own agents for development and prosperity. To get there, we know that investments in education must focus not just on inputs like new classrooms, teacher training, textbooks, and computers, but also on all the policies, incentives, and financing that make education systems work. To ensure that developing countries can be competitive in today’s global marketplace, we must equip the next generation with the essential cognitive skills and the skills for critical thinking, teamwork, and innovation. Knowledge and skills can expand the horizons of our youth and enable them to take advantage of emerging opportunities. We must also measure what students learn, and hold governments and educators accountable if they don’t.

Unfortunately, in too many countries today, although millions more are going to school, young people are leaving school without the knowledge and skills they need to secure jobs and take care of their families. That’s why our new strategy focuses not just on helping young people go to school, but also to make sure they learn. Our strategy’s premise is simple:

  • Invest early, because the ability to learn throughout life is best acquired in early childhood.
  • Invest smartly, because national, family and donor resources are limited compared to our education mission and must yield results.
  • Invest for all, because learning opportunities must be available to all and not just to the smartest or richest.

If you have just three minutes, please watch our video that captures the main messages. And if you like it, please pass it on. I hope you will join me and my colleagues at the Bank in making this the decade of Learning for All.

Get additional information on the World Bank Group Education Sector Strategy at www.worldbank.org/educationstrategy2020.

Education Strategy 2020 (pdf, full document 1.27MB)
Executive Summary (pdf, 985KB)
Strategy Brochure (pdf, 4.97MB)
Learning for All video

Vivian’s Story—Breaking the Cycle of Poverty by Educating and Empowering Girls

Vivian O. was born in the outskirts of Kisumu, Kenya, and is said to have entered the world smiling.  Life for Vivian and others in her rural fishing village was challenging, requiring families to rely on ingenuity and perseverance in the face of little resources.  With the support of her family and her local community, the opportunities created by U.S. assistance programs, and the force of her determination, Vivian would achieve more than she’d ever imagined.

By the time Vivian finished fourth grade, her mother had a stable job selling used clothes in the open-air market in Kisumu.  Girls in rural communities like Vivian’s typically receive a low level of schooling.  However, having completed high school herself, Vivian’s mother prized education and overcame obstacles to enroll Vivian in a proper primary school.  Vivian was one of the top students in her province and eventually secured a place at Starehe Girls’ Centre, a highly competitive secondary school for gifted girls.

While in high school, Vivian became a member of the Global Give Back Circle, a circle of empowerment designed to transition a girl from poverty to prosperity.  The program mentors and supports girls so they can successfully transition from high school to college to a career and to global citizenship.  As the girls graduate, they commit to mentoring the next generation of girls in the circle.

In 2011, USAID announced a $3.5 million award for the education and empowerment of girls through the Global Give Back Circle.  The award is matched by an additional $3.5 million in private sector funds through a Clinton Global Initiative Commitment, so that the program can help over 500 Kenyan girls progress to higher levels of education and employment.  The process is implemented by the Kenya Community Development Foundation—a program by Kenyans for Kenyans.

Vivian has had many opportunities through the Global Give Back Circle.  She completed a nine-month Microsoft IT course, which allowed her to access educational resources online, research colleges, and obtain a full scholarship to a U.S. college.  She is studying pre-med and IT, aspiring to give back by helping millions through the connection of technology and medicine.  Vivian met the U.S. Ambassador to Kenya, Michael Ranneberger, and pledged to actively participate in improving investments in people in Kenya.  As a result, she made presentations to private sector CEOs in Kenya and invited them to invest in girls.  Vivian says, “I feel privileged and honored to be able to be a voice for the empowerment of girls in my country.”

On March 8, 2011, Vivian joined two other young women of excellence—Maryam from Afghanistan and Terhas from Ethiopia—as special guests to the State Department’s International Women of Courage Awards, followed by a private meeting with Secretary Clinton.  Vivian then visited the White House as a guest of First Lady Michelle Obama for a celebration of International Women’s Day.  Two sixth-grade girls, who have benefited from a girls education program in Burkina Faso administered by the Millennium Challenge Corporation in partnership with USAID, also attended.

At the event, Mrs. Obama said, “We as a nation benefit from every girl whose potential is fulfilled, from every woman whose talent is tapped,” adding that countries worldwide are more prosperous and peaceful “when women are equal and have the rights and opportunities they deserve.”

Read Maryam’s Story

Educating 1+ Billion Girls Will Make the Difference for Women’s Equality

This week we celebrate International Women’s Day and it’s as good a time as any to remind ourselves of the remarkable accomplishments toward achieving gender equality—and of the challenges that remain to ensuring that the 3.4 billion girls and women on our planet have the same chances as boys and men to lead healthy and satisfying lives.

This year’s International Women’s Day theme, “equal access to education, training, and science and technology,” is a powerful affirmation of the many benefits of educating girls, which come from improving women’s well-being, such as through better maternal health and greater economic empowerment. A recent Lancet article concluded that half of the decline in child mortality in low-income countries over the past 40 years can be attributed to better education of girls. Another recent study concluded that countries that have more educated women have coped with extreme weather conditions better than other countries—and  these are just two studies that have found empirical evidence for why investing in girls’ education is smart policy.

Girls’ enrollment in primary education has risen from 79% to 87% in the past decade, and gender equality, as measured by the ratio of girls’ to boys’ enrollment rates, seems almost within sight. Even in rural areas in poor countries, more girls are entering school. But these gains have not been the same across countries or even within countries. Being poor, living in a rural area, being from an indigenous community and being a girl means having much less schooling. According to the 2010 UNESCO Global Monitoring Report, for example, poor Hausa girls in rural Nigeria complete only one-third of a year of schooling as compared with more than 10 years for rich, urban boys and girls. Indeed, in many countries across the world, multiple sources of disadvantage leave girls’ schooling lagging behind that of boys. The uphill battle for these girls in areas torn by conflict is even worse.

Special challenges exist for girls. These challenges may be a heavy workload that takes time away from schooling and learning. In Mozambique, for example, young teenage girls work 50% more hours each week than boys, not only cooking and taking care of younger siblings but also collecting water or firewood for their families. Because they are often not expected to use academic skills later in life, girls and their parents may not place sufficient value on schooling—and probably just as typically, their teachers may believe that it is more important to teach to the boys than to the girls in their classrooms. 

When I first joined the World Bank 20 years ago, girls’ education was the first issue I worked on. With three other women who were passionate about the issue (two at USAID and one at an NGO), I organized the panel session on girls’ education at the Education for All conference in Jomtien, Thailand. We have come a long way since. We now know more about the effectiveness of programs such as targeted scholarships or vouchers, conditional cash transfers, and removal of tuition fees that influence the family’s demand for girls’ education. We also know that making more people aware of the benefits of girls’ education, measuring gender inequalities, and rallying more voices to speak about those inequalities are powerful ways to remind people of this critical development issue.

Educating girls is a priority for the World Bank and is a fundamental tenet of our forthcoming Education Strategy 2020, which is dedicated to ensuring that all children, everywhere, are afforded the right to learn and reach their full potential.

Elizabeth King is Director of Education for the World Bank. Elizabeth blogs on Education for Global Development, at blogs.worldbank.org/education.

USAID supports Ministry of Education in Haiti

When the Ministry of Education building collapsed in last year’s earthquake, people scrambled to pull colleagues from the rubble.

Employees quickly returned to work in donated shelters, with little time to mourn the loss of their friends, family and colleagues. Among those killed around Haiti were 38,000 students, 1,347 teachers and 180 education personnel. More than 4,200 schools were destroyed.

The Ministry of Education (MOE) faced a monumental challenge in getting the education system back online. Its gradual progress has been impeded by the loss of office equipment.

Last week, employees, who have shared the few working computers, happily welcomed new supplies provided by USAID project PHARE (Programme Haitien d’Appui à la Réforme de l’Education). The donation included 60 laptops, 20 desktop computers, 80 desks and chairs, and 20 printers.

“This will help us accelerate our work,” said Pierre-Michele Laguerre, MOE director general.

Laguerre described the scene when the three-story building crumbled Jan. 12, killing 11 employees.

“We heard a lot of crying and screaming,” he said. “We spent many days trying to save those under the rubble.”

Those trapped included Jacqueline Jasmin and Marie Lourdes Borno.

A mass of concrete collapsed on Jasmin, whose son leapt from an opening on the first floor as the building pancaked.

“I heard my son crying, ‘My mother is dead!’” she recalled. “I yelled out, ‘I am alive!’”

Jasmin’s son frantically ran for help as colleagues worked by hand to rescue her. Ten hours later, they pulled her out.

When the earthquake struck, Borno had just walked away from Jasmin. Borno lost consciousness and said that upon waking, “I found myself with my arms on me, but they were crushed. I tried to be brave, and prayed to God to have given me life even without arms.”

Her colleagues freed her within 10 minutes, but her arms had to be amputated at the elbow. Jasmin had a metal rod inserted in her broken right arm, which, along with her head, bears multiple scars.

The two share a strong bond, along with a nickname for each other.

“Whenever I see Madame Borno, I hug her and say, “My rubble companion!’” Jasmin said.

Read the rest of this entry »

The Role of Teachers and Textbooks in a Democracy

Submitted by: Diana Harper

“Knowledge will forever govern ignorance, and a people who mean to be their own Governors must arm themselves with the power knowledge gives.”

—James Madison, 1788

This month’s historic referendum will determine southern Sudan’s future, either as an independent country of part of a unified Sudan.  Voting ends on Saturday, January 15, and enormous efforts have been launched by U.S., Sudanese, and international agencies to support a credible process—that voters know how and where to vote, that the Sudanese referendum commission is equipped to carry out referendum logistics, that sufficient ballots and voting materials are available, and that poll workers and election observers are properly trained.

At the same time, the United States has continued to provide development assistance that strengthens democracy as well as demonstrates the benefits of peace.  These efforts include improving health care and access to clean water, building roads and transportation infrastructure, providing microcredit loans to spur economic growth,  and—of particular importance—increasing access to and the quality of education.

Formal education is not a prerequisite for wisdom, but it is a critical part of active participation in the democratic process.  Literacy is crucial for making informed voting decisions and lobbying representatives for change.  The public’s ability to effectively organize and work in groups provides protection against political abuses and dictatorships.  Research supports the intuition that investments in education pay returns in peace and democracy.  (See a related interactive graph.)

In 2005, when Sudan ended its 22-year civil war, only 37% of southern Sudanese men and 12% of women were literate.  Primary school enrollment was low, and girls in particular faced many obstacles to attending school.  These obstacles included high direct and indirect costs, discriminatory attitudes and school policies, and poor access to feminine hygiene products and lack of sanitation facilities.

USAID has worked closely with the Government of Southern Sudan Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology to improve its ability to plan and implement educational reforms, increase access to primary education especially among girls, train teachers, and foster community-wide support for education.

One example of USAID’s work is the opening of a school in the Blue Nile State—a region on the north-south border of Sudan that was a major site of conflict during the civil war.  The Granville-Abbas School serves 120 female students and serves as a model of girls’ education in the region, with three sets of classrooms, a library, theater, and a computer center with internet access.  Better education for girls leads to benefits for their families and communities including increased economic growth, reduced poverty, improved health and nutrition, and better HIV/AIDS control.

U.S. educational programs throughout Sudan helped to increase primary school enrollment from 1.1 million in 2007 to 1.4 million in 2009.  In addition, U.S. programs have trained over 2,300 teachers, including many female instructors who serve as critical role models to young girls.  Beyond bricks and mortar institutions, USAID has also supported radio education to help students study English, math, local languages, and life skills.  In 2009 alone, the radio programs reached over 350,000 youth and adults.

From the Field

In Lebanon, in order to improve student achievement in Lebanese Public Schools, we will improve learning environments through physical repairs and provision of equipment, increase learning opportunities through in-service teacher training and extra-curricular activities, and raise stakeholder engagement in public schools.  This effort is expected to benefit thousands of students and teachers in over 1,300 public schools. Ambassador Maura Connelly, USAID Senior Deputy Assistant Administrator for the Middle East Christopher Crowley and USAID/Lebanon Mission Director Dr. Jim Barnhart will announce the program with the Lebanese Minister of Education & Higher Education; Dr. Hassan Mneimneh.

In Afghanistan, we will hold our second Water Conference. In this Forum, key water sector stakeholders can develop a shared understanding of the opportunities and challenges of sustainable development and management of water resources in Afghanistan and set a road map for addressing the challenges.

In Cambodia, on December 10th in Phnom Penh, we will celebrate the 62nd Anniversary of International Human Rights Day.

Europe and Eurasia Celebrates Progress on Disability Rights and Addresses Continuing Challenges

Nver Mirzoyan, an 8-year old child in Hobartsi, Armenia, suffers from congenital cerebral palsy and was able to attend school for only a few months a year.  During winter he stopped going entirely because his mother—the sole breadwinner of the family—was busy earning money through odd jobs and Nver could not reach the school in his home-made wheelchair.  Through a USAID-funded program, Stepanavan ADP and their partner DPO, “Full Life” intervened on Nver’s behalf, and obtained the agreement of the Hobartsi school Principal to accept Nver in his school beginning in September 2009.  The school was also targeted for modifications to improve accessibility as part of the USAID program.  A ramp was constructed for the school which made the school entrance accessible for Nver.  “Full Life” is working with his school and providing them with an inclusive education toolkit, helping the staff and children to better integrate Nver and children like him into the school community.

Armenian researcher conducting street poll on disability issues. Photo Credit: World Vision

Unfortunately, the stories of most people with disabilities (PWD) in Europe and Eurasia do not end as happily as Nver’s. In most countries in the region it is estimated that somewhere between 3% and 10% of the population is living with some form of disability.  Children with disabilities are typically relegated to “special schools” where they obtain an inferior education or they may be kept out of school altogether by parents who fear the stigma attached to their child’s disability. Very few schools in the region are able to offer inclusive education, although there are some efforts to improve this situation, including several funded by USAID. Also, adults with disabilities are very rarely employed. For example, estimates are that less than 10% of the adults with disabilities in Armenia have jobs. Due to the combination of high levels of unemployment and the meager disability benefits that are offered across the region, individuals with disabilities are at great risk of living in poverty. Given that social services for PWDs are also largely absent, the conditions under which they live are often dire.

USAID Missions in many countries in the region are funding programs designed to address the many barriers that keep PWDs from realizing their human rights and that make it difficult for them to be included in the social and economic life of their communities. For example, in Montenegro, USAID is helping to build a lodge in Durmitor National Park that is specially adapted to the needs of young people with disabilities so that by next summer as many as 160 disabled youth will be able to take advantage of outdoor activities available. Through the Equal Access for Equal Opportunities project in Macedonia, all 334 central primary schools were assessed to gauge the capacity of schools to be inclusive and to provide services to children with disabilities, especially through the use of assistive technology. The resulting statistics are able to quantify for the first time the needs of children and what must be done in the school system to meet these needs. USAID/Russia, USAID/Albania, and USAID/Serbia are all working on activities designed to increase the likelihood that PWDs will be able to obtain jobs by helping to amend laws and policies, providing vocational and skills building opportunities, organizing job fairs, and other innovative services.  While in Russia earlier this year, I met Denise Roza the Director of the Russian disability rights NGO, Perspektiva. She has amazing positive energy, and through Perspektiva, has been working to improve the quality of life for people with disabilities in Russia. Rosa pointed out that over the last decade they have been able to partner with disability organizations through 15 regions in Russia!

On Friday, our Missions joined the international community in celebrating the International Day of Persons with Disabilities.  In Georgia, in collaboration with the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs (MoLHSA), USAID and its implementing partners held a conference designed to highlight the existing state policies related to PWDs, present the state programs that have been implemented in line with Georgia’s three-year national disability action plan, and describe government strategies/programs for 2011.

Having marked the 2010 International Day of Persons with Disabilities last week, we will now keep working every day to advance fundamental rights for people with disabilities so that they may live a more equitable life with greater opportunity.

From the Field

In Mali, we will hold a launch ceremony for a new Maternal and Newborn Health collaboration framework.  Mali has been selected as one of the countries for the implementation of the joint Organisation of The Islamic Conference (OIC)-US Government ”Reaching Every Mother and Baby in the OIC with Emergency Care” strategy. USAID has been designated to lead this effort for the US Government.

In Egypt, we will celebrate forty-five new scholarships for young Egyptian students to obtain degrees from Egyptian private universities in fields of studies that are important to Egypt’s current and future development. The Leadership Opportunities Transforming University Students (LOTUS) program aims at identifying and empowering young women and men who have demonstrated academic excellence, leadership and involvement in their communities.  The program will help develop and nurture the recipients’ leadership potentials, skills and commitment to community and country so that they are prepared to become future leaders and advocates for development in local communities.

In Tanzania, it is Swahili Fashion Week.  On the last day of fashion week, USAID/COMPETE (East Africa Competitiveness and Trade Expansion Program) will organize a merchandising workshop to provide an element of training/guidance for what it takes to go commercial, and what the global market is looking for.

U.S.-India People to People Conference: Building the Foundation for a Strong Partnership

This originally appeared on Dipnote.

Tomorrow, the Department of State will host the U.S.-India People to People (P2P) Conference. Ahead of President Obama’s visit to India, this event will highlight the crucial role of Indian-Americans in the U.S.-India relationship. Secretary Clinton has been clear that connecting with all citizens, not just government officials, is essential to cultivating long-term relationships. While government cooperation remains essential, it is the myriad people-to-people connections that continue to define and further deepen the U.S.-India partnership.

The P2P conference will provide a grassroots discussion forum on four areas important to both countries: renewable energy, global health, education, and economic empowerment. By bringing together innovators and thinkers in these fields, this conference seeks to strengthen the personal networks that spark innovation. We aim to continue working with Indian Americans and others to strengthen and leverage such networks for the mutual benefit of both our countries. Tomorrow’s conference is only the start of our conversation, and we look forward to following up with all the conference attendees and participants.

You can stay connected to the conference by following the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs on Facebook and Twitter.

The People-To-People Conference will be hosted by the U.S. Department of State in cooperation with the Indian American Leadership Council (IALC) and the American India Foundation (AIF) in the Loy Henderson Auditorium from 12:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. on October 28, 2010. The program will consist of panel discussions related to the five pillars of the U.S.-India Strategic Dialogue, specifically Renewable Energy, Global Health, Education and Economic Empowerment. Under Secretary of State for Economic, Energy and Agricultural Affairs Robert D. Hormats will provide opening remarks. USAID Administrator Dr. Rajiv Shah will give the keynote address and Indian Ambassador to the U.S. Meera Shankar has been invited to give closing remarks. Other senior U.S. government officials will also be in attendance and participating in the various conference sessions. Click here for more information.

Ethiopia Partners with the U.S. to Put Girls’ Education First

First Lady Azeb Mesfin has been steadfast in her determination to collaborate with USAID on the award of scholarships to meritorious girls who would otherwise have to drop out of school. So it gives me great pleasure to participate in the signing of this agreement on behalf of the American people, to provide FreAddis the means to benefit over 1,000 female students.

USAID Ethiopia Mission Director Thomas Staal, First Lady Azeb Mesfin, and US Ambassador Donald Booth participate in an event sponsored by FreAddis. Photo credit: USAID

Education is one of the most effective ways to fight poverty and all its trappings: hunger, disease, resource degradation, exploitation, and despair. Women are the caretakers and economic catalysts in our communities. No country can afford to ignore their potential. We all know women whose lives were transformed through education and who in turn transformed the lives of those around them.

I am pleased to welcome FreAddis as our newest partner in the education sector where we are working with the Ministry of Education to improve the quality of teaching and classroom materials for the greatly expanded numbers of children in primary schools all over the country. FreAddis hopes to eventually expand its reach and support to girls nationwide through funds donated by Ethiopians here and throughout the Diaspora.

In the future we hope to collaborate with more local institutions enabling them to carry out their missions and to make best use of the opportunities provided by the U.S. Government.

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