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From Hyogo to Sendai: A New Action Plan for Resilience

Ten years after the Hyogo Framework became the global blueprint for disaster risk reduction, so much has changed about the way we approach disaster risk reduction. Today, our work focuses not only on disaster preparedness, but on building resilience by helping communities mitigate the inevitable disasters they will face before, during, and after they strike.

This week, I led the U.S. delegation to the Third U.N. World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan. Joined by partner agencies, including USAID, the State Department, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), FEMA, NASA, and USPS, we set out to renew our commitments to reduce the risk of disasters at home and abroad. The result: the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.  Establishing ambitious targets, this framework includes goals of reducing mortality, minimizing economic and infrastructure losses, and getting countries to commit to disaster risk reduction strategies.

Three themes were front and center at Sendai and are critical to making the world a safer place in the next 15 years.

1. Building Resilience

Reducing disaster risk is not enough. We must build resilience by helping communities build the capacity to bounce back from the inevitable shocks they face. We must move from a preoccupation with mega-disasters — tsunamis and earthquakes — to also deal with chronic shocks and stresses — from frequent floods and droughts to rapid urbanization and chronic food insecurity — that keep communities locked in a cycle of crisis. To do so, we have to break down silos, bringing the humanitarian and development communities together to invest in long-term solutions that build resilience among the world’s most vulnerable. Many governments and donors at Sendai recognized the importance of this, and as a result, the Sendai Framework elevates resilience as a priority.

USAID’s resilience programs in the Sahel are helping pastoralists to diversify their livelihoods so that they are not solely reliant on the land and are better prepared to cope with dry seasons. Sahra Osman Ibrahim received a loan to open up a shop through the USAID-supported Somali Microfinance Share Company. / USAID Ethiopia.

USAID’s resilience programs in the Sahel are helping pastoralists to diversify their livelihoods so that they are not solely reliant on the land and are better prepared to cope with dry seasons. Sahra Osman Ibrahim received a loan to open up a shop through the USAID-supported Somali Microfinance Share Company. / USAID Ethiopia.

Since 2012, USAID has been a leader in mobilizing a global conversation on resilience. We have brought our humanitarian and development teams together to co-design programs that help communities build adaptive capacity across a range of areas, from diversifying their livelihoods to providing access to early warning and risk insurance. Conference participants were eager to hear about USAID’s approach to resilience and our bold new Global Resilience Partnership, which will help catalyze innovations and scale up solutions to the toughest resilience challenges in the Sahel, the Horn of Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. We look forward to working with partner governments and other donors to coordinate our investments in resilience.

2. Promoting Local Solutions

The Tecpán Municipal Disaster Reduction Committee meets to discuss risk reduction priorities for the 2012 rainy season. / Auriana Koutnik, USAID.

The Tecpán Municipal Disaster Reduction Committee meets to discuss risk reduction priorities for the 2012 rainy season. / Auriana Koutnik, USAID.

Locally-driven solutions are crucial for lessening disaster risks. Many civil society organizations were present at Sendai, sharing how their communities have been affected by disasters and part of the solution to building preparedness and resilience at the local level. They will continue to play a critical role in holding governments accountable for their commitments. At USAID, we have invested heavily in community-led disaster risk reduction programs. For example, in Guatemala, we trained 27 remote communities in Tecpán to prepare for and respond to disasters. As part of our Resilience in the Sahel—Enhanced program, we are working with local women to diversify their livelihoods, so that they are not solely reliant on one source of income when disaster strikes. We expect our Global Resilience Challenge teams will unlock new ideas for fostering locally-led solutions to building resilience. USAID will continue to work in strong partnership with local communities and civil society to advance these goals.

3. Fostering Inclusion

Thomas H. Staal, acting assistant administrator for USAID’s Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance, participates in the Children and Youth Forum in Sendai, Japan. / Cynthia Romero, USAID

Thomas H. Staal, acting assistant administrator for USAID’s Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance, participates in the Children and Youth Forum in Sendai, Japan. / Cynthia Romero, USAID

During a disaster, women, youth, the elderly and people with disabilities have different needs and often fare worse than others. I was glad to see the inclusion of these critical stakeholders in the Sendai Framework. During the conference, I participated in the Children and Youth Forum, where I shared some highlights from USAID’s youth programs on disaster risk reduction in Jamaica and Nepal. While youth work is important, we also work with the elderly, who bring their own unique perspectives and capabilities to bear. When we invest in disaster risk reduction worldwide, we must make sure no community is left behind, and that we are taking the unique needs and strengths of each community into account.

Without a doubt, reducing the risk of disasters and building resilience is critical to protecting the gains made in sustainable development. As we look towards the post-2015 development agenda, Sendai reminded us that we must make risk-informed investments if we are to achieve our goal of ending extreme poverty.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Thomas H. Staal is acting assistant administrator for USAID’s Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA). Follow the DCHA Bureau @USAID_DCHA.

How 3D Printing Can Help Save Lives

It takes just 6 inches of moving water to knock a person to the ground. Flash floods, as their name suggests, come on quickly. But given the proper tools, experts can make flood predictions using real-time measurements and give warnings to get people out of harm’s way.

The problem is, many flood-prone countries cannot afford enough of these expensive weather systems to properly monitor the weather.

Floods were the most deadly natural disaster in 2013, accounting for nearly half of the natural disaster-related deaths. / Ben Hemingway, USAID/OFDA

Floods were the most deadly natural disaster in 2013, accounting for nearly half of the natural disaster-related deaths. / Ben Hemingway, USAID/OFDA

Since 1997, USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) has been partnering with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to find an affordable way to help developing countries predict and prepare for bad weather. Recently, they’ve been looking for ways to improve weather observation.

Commercial weather stations can have a price tag in the tens of thousands of dollars, with maintenance and repairs piling on additional costs. Repairs also require expensive technicians, if replacement parts are even available. To make matters worse, critical pieces often become discontinued, forcing countries to purchase a completely new weather station

New technology is providing a solution. As it turns out, 3D printers are able to produce almost all the parts needed to manufacture reliable, accurate weather stations. Add in low-cost electronic sensors, and you’ve got a station–all for around $200.

Kelly Sponberg, a program manager with the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Joint Office of Science Support (JOSS) working with NOAA, spearheaded the Micro-Manufacturing and Assembly project to develop a range of affordable meteorological tools.

“In the U.S., weather is very accessible,” Sponberg said. “You can turn on the news, look online, or use an app on your phone. It’s easy to take for granted the ability to check the weather. But in many developing countries, weather forecasting has been limited because of the high cost of weather systems. I wanted to change that by finding an affordable way for countries to predict and prepare for weather.”

The 3D printing technology will be showcased this week at the 3rd UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan, where thousands have gathered to discuss the best ways to reduce the catastrophic toll of disasters.

Don’t let its humble looks fool you - this 3D-printed weather station will help developing countries forecast weather-related disasters and save lives. / Kelly Sponberg, NOAA

Don’t let its humble looks fool you – this 3D-printed weather station will help developing countries forecast weather-related disasters and save lives. / Kelly Sponberg, NOAA

Here’s how it works. First, Martin Steinson, a UCAR JOSS project manager and mechanical engineer, creates 3D computer designs for every part of a weather station. Then, a microwave-sized 3D printer turns these designs into reality–melting thick coils of plastic into thin threads that layer on top of one another to form the components of a fully functional, sophisticated weather station. The printing is so precise that once all the pieces are printed, they can be assembled by hand and the new weather station finally brought online.

In the field, the station collects measurements related to temperature, pressure, humidity, rainfall and wind that are stored in a tiny computer about the size of an iPhone. From here, the data can be transmitted to weather experts, who will use it for their forecasts. As the program evolves, additional sensors may be added, like ones to take soil measurements, which could be used to help farmers increase their yields.

 Raspberry Pi, a computer the size of an iPhone, can hold a year’s worth of weather information collected from a 3D-printed station. / Heather Freitag, USAID/OFDA.

Raspberry Pi, a computer the size of an iPhone, can hold a year’s worth of weather information collected from a 3D-printed station. / Heather Freitag, USAID/OFDA.

“The bottom line is that 3D printing will help to save lives,” said Sezin Tokar, a hydrometeorologist with USAID/OFDA. “Not only can they provide countries with the ability to more accurately monitor for weather-related disasters, the data they produce can also help reduce the economic impact of disasters.”

The 3D-printed weather stations are undergoing testing to make sure they are durable and will meet international standards. Once testing is complete, pilot projects will be established in one or two countries.

The hope is that Zambia will become the first country to work with the Micro-Manufacturing and Assembly project. This summer, after receiving extensive training, Zambia’s National Weather Service will be provided with laptops loaded with the 3D designs for each individual part, along with several 3D printers and all the tools and materials required. Countries will have the flexibility to print additional weather stations whenever their budget allows. And if any piece breaks, partners will be able to print a new one. Then, Sponberg said, it’s “as simple as switching out a lightbulb.”

From March 14 to 18, USAID staff have joined thousands at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan to discuss the best ways to reduce the catastrophic toll of disasters. In 2013 alone, natural disasters took the lives of more than 22,000 people, affected nearly 97 million others, and caused almost $118 billion in economic damages.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Heather Freitag is an Online Communications Specialist with USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance

New Steps in Disaster Risk Reduction

In 2013 alone, natural disasters took the lives of more than 22,000 people, affected nearly 97 million others, and caused almost $118 billion worth of economic damages.

To tackle this problem, I’ve joined the thousands of people gathering in Sendai, Japan this week for the Third U.N. World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction. As a member of the U.S. delegation–led by USAID’s Thomas H. Staal–I’ll be taking part in discussions on the best ways to reduce the catastrophic toll of natural disasters.

Heavy rains fell over nearly all of Cambodia in the fall of 2011. Floodwaters spread across 18 of 24 provinces, affecting 1.5 million people, and destroying nearly 10 percent of the nation’s crops. / Brian Heidel, USAID

Heavy rains fell over nearly all of Cambodia in the fall of 2011. Floodwaters spread across 18 of 24 provinces, affecting 1.5 million people, and destroying nearly 10 percent of the nation’s crops. / Brian Heidel, USAID

What is Disaster Risk Reduction?

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is everything that we do to prevent or reduce the damage caused by natural hazards like earthquakes, floods, droughts and storms. Recognizing the need to increase DRR efforts, nearly 170 countries adopted a 10-year framework in 2005 to make the world safer from natural hazards called the Hyogo Framework for Action.

That framework expired in 2014. The conference this week is an opportunity for world leaders, government agencies, NGOs and international organizations to come together and reflect on the progress made over the last decade. However, our most important agenda is in looking forward to what remains to be done and assessing how we can address shifting needs.

In 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan hit the Philippines, destroying entire towns across the country. Thanks to disaster risk reduction and preparedness efforts, when Super Typhoon Hagupit hit the Philippines just a year later, damage was minimal. / Chuck Setchell, USAID
In 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan hit the Philippines, destroying entire towns across the country. Thanks to disaster risk reduction and preparedness efforts, when Super Typhoon Hagupit hit the Philippines just a year later, damage was minimal. / Chuck Setchell, USAID

Building Resilience

Through the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), USAID responds to an average of 70 disasters in 50 countries each year. In just the past 10 years, we’ve responded to the massive 2010 Haiti earthquake, super typhoons in the Philippines, earthquakes and hurricanes across Latin America, and large-scale floods and an earthquake in Pakistan.

But we don’t just respond. USAID also works to build resilience by helping vulnerable communities prepare for disasters before they strike.

We do this by strengthening early warning systems and preparedness, like in Latin America; integrating DRR with disaster response, as we did in Bangladesh; providing training such as improved farming methods in Afghanistan to help people withstand future disasters; and helping build resilience to the effects of climate change, as in Vietnam and Mozambique. In the last decade, OFDA has provided nearly $1.2 billion in DRR funding to 91 countries and 162 partners.

What’s Next?

The goal of the conference is to build on the foundation of the previous framework and establish a new way forward to encourage everyone to take further steps toward reducing risks. Given the trends of increasingly devastating natural disasters, focusing on DRR has never been more important.

In the coming years, disasters are expected to become more numerous and take greater tolls due to climate change, a growing world population and more people settling in hazard-prone areas.

With each disaster, development gains are threatened as infrastructure is destroyed, poverty increases, and economic opportunities are interrupted or lost. But we are not resigned to this fate. OFDA’s mission is to save lives, alleviate human suffering, and reduce the social and economic impacts of disasters. As long as disasters threaten lives and livelihoods, DRR must play a key role moving forward.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Sezin Tokar is a Hydrometeorological Hazards Adviser with USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance.

USAID Takes to the High Seas to Bring Reinforcements to Guinea’s Ebola Fight

In the war against Ebola, health care workers on the front lines need more than personal protective equipment and training to keep safe. / Morgana Wingard, USAID
In the war against Ebola, health care workers on the front lines need more than personal protective equipment and training to keep safe. / Morgana Wingard, USAID

In the war against Ebola, health care workers on the front lines need personal protective equipment — overalls, gloves, goggles and boots; training on infection prevention and control; and plenty of something called HTH.

HTH stands for high test hypochlorite. It’s chlorine in concentrated granular form and so potent that, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only a few tablespoons in a 5-gallon bucket is sufficient to kill the Ebola virus and disinfect contaminated surfaces. The substance is often used to sanitize pools.

The downside is that HTH is volatile and can cause explosions. So instead of transporting the chlorine by plane—as was done with other Ebola response commodities—USAID arranged for a cargo ship to safely move more than 53 metric tons of HTH to Guinea and another 38 tons to Sierra Leone. Combined, that equals the weight of almost 70 compact cars.

The cargo ship arrived at Port of Conakry on Feb. 24, and the more than 9,700 drums of HTH were transferred by truck to a warehouse managed by the Central Pharmacy of Guinea to be distributed to health care facilities across the country.

From obtaining the the chlorine to ensuring its safe delivery to Guinea and Sierra Leone, USAID’s Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) played a crucial role in making sure this operation went off without a hitch.

In late February, USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance sent 53 tons of chlorine to Guinea by ocean freight rather than airlifting the supplies by plane due to safety protocols. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA

In late February, USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance sent 53 tons of chlorine to Guinea by ocean freight rather than airlifting the supplies by plane due to safety protocols. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA


High test hypochlorite (HTH) is a concentrated form of chlorine; only a few tablespoons in 5 gallons of water are enough to kill the Ebola virus. But HTH is also volatile and can cause explosions. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA

High test hypochlorite (HTH) is a concentrated form of chlorine; only a few tablespoons in 5 gallons of water are enough to kill the Ebola virus. But HTH is also volatile and can cause explosions. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA


Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) member Emily Betz Close lifts a 55-pound drum of highly concentrated chlorine. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA

Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) member Emily Betz Close lifts a 55-pound drum of highly concentrated chlorine. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA


In total, more than 9,700 drums of high test hypochlorite (HTH) were safely stored for further distribution to medical facilities across Guinea. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA.

In total, more than 9,700 drums of high test hypochlorite (HTH) were safely stored for further distribution to medical facilities across Guinea. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA.


Despite the back-breaking work, these warehouse workers manage to stay positive. USAID is happy to be working in partnership with Guinea in the fight against Ebola. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA

Despite the back-breaking work, these warehouse workers manage to stay positive. USAID is happy to be working in partnership with Guinea in the fight against Ebola. / Allen Carney, USAID/OFDA


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

The Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) is overseeing the U.S. Ebola response efforts in West Africa. The DART includes staff from across the U.S. Government, including USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Departments of Defense and Health and Human Services.

Guinean Doctor Survives Ebola, Pays ​I​t Forward

Participants in an infection prevention and control training in Guinea learn key skills. / Jhpiego

Participants in an infection prevention and control training in Guinea learn key skills. / Jhpiego

Conakry, Guinea—Dr. Thierno Souleymane Diallo is a formidable ally in Guinea’s race to prevent and contain the spread of the deadly Ebola virus. As a survivor of the disease, he is championing with colleagues the Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) skills that can save lives.

Last August, Dr. Thierno contracted Ebola during his rotation in the maternity ward at the Ignace Deen National Hospital. The 35-year-old father of three was infected while treating a pregnant patient who showed no Ebola-related symptoms, but who later tested positive for the disease. The doctor candidly admits that he could have avoided infection if he had known “to take every precaution.”

However, because the hospital failed to follow recommended IPC practices while caring for the patient, Dr. Thiero and five team members had to be isolated after contact. “I was the only one of the team to develop the disease,” he said.

Thierno spent 21 days in an Ebola treatment center run by Doctors Without Borders, suffering from bloody diarrhea, nausea, body aches and constant 104-degree fevers. “Sometimes I prayed to God to let me sleep, to forget my state…and when I woke up,I felt like my entire body was full of lead,” he said.

When he received a visit from his wife during this period, he was so disoriented that he at first didn’t recognize her. From the designated visitors’ area of the center, Dr. Thierno and his wife had to call out to each other from a distance of about three meters—over a wire fence and across an empty lane. Dr. Thierno remembers little or nothing of this visit.

After his release, Dr. Thierno spent another two and a half months at home recovering from severe joint pain. Upon returning to work he participated in an update and refresher training for health workers during which he learned the importance of following proper IPC practices, especially during the Ebola outbreak.

The five-day training was organized by the USAID’s flagship Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP) in conjunction with the Ministry of Health in Guinea. The training used lectures along with simulated practical sessions and health facility site visits to allow for hands-on demonstrations of proper IPC.

Dr. Thierno is now among 27 providers with updated skills who are managing a large-scale training—under the guidance of the USAID team—for 2,200 Guinean health care workers in IPC practices adapted for Ebola-impacted countries. They are also providing follow-up supportive supervision to these workers every two weeks as part of Ministry of Health efforts to keep front-line health workers safe and prepared to serve Guineans who may become ill.

“This training has closed the door on ignorance related to infection prevention and opened a door on behavior change,” he said.

Rachel Waxman contributed to this article.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Jacqueline Aribot and Alisha Horowitz are the Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Advisor and Associate Editor for USAID’s flagship Maternal and Child Survival Program, implemented by Jhpiego 

Anatomy of a Logistics Operation: How USAID is Equipping Ebola Fighters on the Frontlines

Transporting vital supplies and critical commodities quickly to the epicenter of an international disaster is what USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance does every day. However, the Ebola response has proved especially challenging for USAID’s disaster experts.

A USAID-chartered plane lands in Monrovia, Liberia, transporting critically-needed medical supplies to the frontlines of the Ebola response. Photo courtesy: Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

A USAID-chartered plane lands in Monrovia, Liberia, transporting critically-needed medical supplies to the frontlines of the Ebola response. Photo courtesy: Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

“Most disasters we respond to are either natural disasters—such as an earthquake, where the acute needs peak and then go down very quickly—or it’s a war,” explained Kelly Bradley, a logistician with USAID’s Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART). “Ebola is essentially a brand-new type of response because outside of a few groups, no one has dealt with it on a large scale before.”

Inside the cargo hold, thousands of sets of protective equipment (PPE) to protect Ebola health care workers. As of January 2015, the U.S. has transported more than 400 metric tons of medical and disaster supplies to West Africa. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

Inside the cargo hold, thousands of sets of protective equipment (PPE) to protect Ebola health care workers. As of January 2015, the U.S. has transported more than 400 metric tons of medical and disaster supplies to West Africa. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

One major obstacle: Affected West African countries did not have robust infrastructure in place to receive and distribute all the goods pouring into their airports. As a result, the United States found itself in the unique position of moving an unprecedented amount of medical supplies to a region while simultaneously working to build a logistics supply chain almost from scratch—all to ensure that health care workers are able to get what they need to save lives.

USAID Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) logisticians Kelly Bradley and Rogers Warren receive medical supplies at Roberts International Airport in Monrovia, Liberia. In addition to airlifting critical commodities, they had to help build a supply chain to ensure that the medical supplies got to areas of need. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

USAID Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) logisticians Kelly Bradley and Rogers Warren receive medical supplies at Roberts International Airport in Monrovia, Liberia. In addition to airlifting critical commodities, they had to help build a supply chain to ensure that the medical supplies got to areas of need. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

“We were getting requests left, right and center,” said Bradley. “People didn’t know what they were asking for. We didn’t know what was coming in a lot of the time. Even the experts who do medical responses didn’t fully understand the scope of the need.”

Inside a warehouse in Monrovia, the U.S. military and USAID put together “starter kits” of medical and cleaning supplies to sustain U.S.-supported Ebola clinics for the first critical days of operation. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

Inside a warehouse in Monrovia, the U.S. military and USAID put together “starter kits” of medical and cleaning supplies to sustain U.S.-supported Ebola clinics for the first critical days of operation. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

Much of the need centered on delivering enough personal protective equipment (PPE) – including gloves, goggles, coveralls, masks and boots—to health care workers. Enter the U.S. military, which has been working closely with USAID to airlift more than 1.4 million sets of PPE to Monrovia, the country’s capital.

However, once the supplies were flown in, there was no dedicated system in place to transport them to the Ebola treatment units (ETUs) being constructed and staffed by the United States.

USAID funded the UN World Food Program (WFP) to build a system of warehouses in five strategic locations throughout Liberia. Photo courtesy: Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

USAID funded the UN World Food Program (WFP) to build a system of warehouses in five strategic locations throughout Liberia. Photo courtesy: Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

That’s when USAID partnered closely with the UN World Food Program (WFP) and supported its work to build a system of warehouses throughout the country and develop a supply chain of medical equipment to ensure ETUs received ample resources to open its doors and stay operational.

With this supply chain in place, PPE and other medical supplies could now be transported by truck to logistics bases located in five strategic Liberian cities, close to U.S.-supported ETUs.

In addition to supplying Ebola Treatment Units with medical equipment, USAID has been providing communities with household kits containing bleach, masks, soap and gloves so that families taking care of sick loved ones could be better protected against Ebola. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

In addition to supplying Ebola Treatment Units with medical equipment, USAID has been providing communities with household kits containing bleach, masks, soap and gloves so that families taking care of sick loved ones could be better protected against Ebola. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

Mira Baddour, a logistician with WFP in Liberia, admits that getting all the main players on the same page was initially very challenging.

Coordination in action: U.S. Army logistician Terri Mcfadden (center) consults with USAID logistician Kelly Bradley (right) at a WFP warehouse in Harper, Liberia, on best ways to transport supplies to U.S.-supported Ebola clinics. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

Coordination in action: U.S. Army logistician Terri Mcfadden (center) consults with USAID logistician Kelly Bradley (right) at a WFP warehouse in Harper, Liberia, on best ways to transport supplies to U.S.-supported Ebola clinics. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

“For us, for WFP, we usually deal with delivering food,” Baddour explained. “Now, we were dealing with unfamiliar concepts like ETUs and working with different partners. But [being here] is really a great experience for me… and everyone is now working very well with each other.”

“It’s a totally different crisis,” said WFP logistician Mira Baddour at one of the warehouses in Liberia that her agency is running. “It has been challenging, but at the same time it is a really great experience for me.” / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

“It’s a totally different crisis,” said WFP logistician Mira Baddour at one of the warehouses in Liberia that her agency is running. “It has been challenging, but at the same time it is a really great experience for me.” / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

USAID’s Kelly Bradley, who is a veteran of several disasters, agrees that the experience has been personally rewarding.

“Think about the sheer volume of personal protective equipment that [has been] coming in,” said Bradley. “My unit is directly responsible for making sure that it gets to our partners… the Ebola health care workers on the frontlines. It’s a really big responsibility and a really rewarding thing to be a part of it all.”

Meet the team of experts with USAID, the U.S. military, and the UN World Food Program that have been working around the clock to transport, track and deliver critical medical supplies for the Ebola response. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

Meet the team of experts with USAID, the U.S. military, and the UN World Food Program that have been working around the clock to transport, track and deliver critical medical supplies for the Ebola response. / Carol Han, USAID/OFDA

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

The Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) is overseeing the U.S. Ebola response efforts in West Africa. The DART includes staff from across the U.S. Government, including USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Departments of Defense and Health and Human Services.

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Training the Next Generation of Ebola Fighters

To learn how to safely treat Ebola patients while staying alive, doctors and nurses must learn how to navigate an Ebola “maze” run by the U.S. military in Liberia. / Carol Han, USAID

To learn how to safely treat Ebola patients while staying alive, doctors and nurses must learn how to navigate an Ebola “maze” run by the U.S. military in Liberia. / Carol Han, USAID

Walk into the gymnasium of the Liberian National Police Training Academy and you’ll come across a maze so bizarre—and as it turns out so high-stakes—that  successfully navigating it could mean the difference between life and death.

Welcome to the nerve center of the U.S. health care worker training program. It’s a replica of an Ebola treatment unit (ETU), where doctors, nurses, hygienists, and others learn how to safely care for Ebola patients while staying alive.


The U.S.-run Ebola health care worker training takes place at the Liberian National Police Academy, where the gymnasium has been transformed into a mock Ebola treatment unit.  / Carol Han, USAID

The U.S.-run Ebola health care worker training takes place at the Liberian National Police Academy, where the gymnasium has been transformed into a mock Ebola treatment unit. / Carol Han, USAID

“Everything is about safety—the safety of the staff and the safety of the patients,” said U.S. Army Colonel Laura Favand, who helps oversee the Ebola health care worker training program.

During the week-long class, students first spend three days in the classroom where U.S. military doctors, nurses and medics teach them every aspect of Ebola care, from diagnosis and patient recordkeeping to proper disinfection techniques and safe handling of the dead.

Cross-contamination is the biggest threat in an ETU, which is why there’s an entire class dedicated to proper hand-washing techniques. Another critical lesson: how to take off protective suits, goggles, and gloves without inadvertently contracting the disease.

According to Colonel Favand, this is one of the most vulnerable times for Ebola health care workers.


Taking off protective suits—like what’s being done here at a USAID-supported ETU in Sierra Leone—is a vulnerable time for health care workers. That’s why so much time is spent teaching health care workers how to prevent cross-contamination.  / Carol Han, USAID

Taking off protective suits—like what’s being done here at a USAID-supported ETU in Sierra Leone—is a vulnerable time for health care workers. That’s why so much time is spent teaching health care workers how to prevent cross-contamination. / Carol Han, USAID

“You’ll see someone getting ready to take their gloves off and their hands are shaking,” said Favand. “They know how important this is.”

Classroom time is followed by two days spent in the “mock ETU” where students are taught how to navigate in a clinical setting and practically apply all that they have learned. Actual Ebola survivors play the role of patients, offering invaluable insight into what actually happens in an ETU. According to participants, the survivors also help teach them how to communicate with patients.


Actual Ebola survivors play the role of patients at U.S. Ebola health care worker trainings, providing invaluable insight. Here, a student assesses a child patient and Ebola survivor during a training session in Greenville, Liberia under the watchful eyes of the instructor. / Col. Laura Favand, U.S. Army

Actual Ebola survivors play the role of patients at U.S. Ebola health care worker trainings, providing invaluable insight. Here, a student assesses a child patient and Ebola survivor during a training session in Greenville, Liberia under the watchful eyes of the instructor. / Col. Laura Favand, U.S. Army

“We learn some different terms in Liberian English that allows us to have a more accurate perception of the patient,” said Ephraim Palmero, medical director for the International Organization of Migration, an organization being supported by USAID to run three U.S.-built ETUs in Liberia.

“For example, instead of saying ‘how are you,’ Liberians ask, ‘how’s the body,’” Palmero explained.


On the Road: The U.S. military has deployed mobile training teams throughout Liberia to offer the same course to those who can’t travel to the main training site in the Monrovia metro area. / Carol Han, USAID

On the Road: The U.S. military has deployed mobile training teams throughout Liberia to offer the same course to those who can’t travel to the main training site in the Monrovia metro area. / Carol Han, USAID

Besides running the training at the Liberian police academy, the U.S. military deploys four mobile training teams throughout Liberia to offer the same course to health care workers who are unable to make it to Monrovia.  Liberian health officials — in charge of training the next generation of Ebola health care workers — also take the class.

“I love doing this mission,” said U.S. Army Captain Alex Ailer. “I like that people here are being helped and that we are also helping local people help themselves.”


U.S. Air Force Senior Airman Alexander Muniz and U.S. Army Captain Anna Bible take a break while teaching an Ebola health care training course in Harper, Liberia. They are part of a mobile training team. / Carol Han, USAID

U.S. Air Force Senior Airman Alexander Muniz and U.S. Army Captain Anna Bible take a break while teaching an Ebola health care training course in Harper, Liberia. They are part of a mobile training team. / Carol Han, USAID

As of early January 2015, more than 1,500 Liberian and international health care workers have taken part in the training, including several USAID partners that are now running the U.S.-built ETUs.

“The training was incredible and great for me because it alleviated my fears,” said Micaela Theisen with the International Organization for Migration. “It [made] me feel good and ready to get to work.”

Her colleague Catherine Thomas agreed.

“The staff there, their medical knowledge was very comforting to us who were just starting out.” said Thomas. “They were just great.”


(from left to right) Health care workers Catherine Thomas, Micaela Theisen, and Rene Vega—all working at USAID-supported ETUs—have taken the U.S. Ebola health care worker training course. “The training was incredible and great for me because it alleviated my fears,” said Theisen.  / Carol Han, USAID

From left to right: Health care workers Catherine Thomas, Micaela Theisen, and Rene Vega—all working at USAID-supported ETUs—have taken the U.S. Ebola health care worker training course. “The training was incredible and great for me because it alleviated my fears,” said Theisen. / Carol Han, USAID

 


The Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) is overseeing the U.S. Ebola response efforts in West Africa. The DART includes staff from across the government, including USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Departments of Defense and Health and Human Services.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Carol Han is a Press Officer for the Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART), which oversees the U.S. Ebola response efforts in West Africa. The DART includes staff from across the government, including USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Departments of Defense and Health and Human Services.

“I remember it like it was yesterday. The entire city just shrunk.”

Within mere seconds, more than 200,000 people were killed, and 1.5 million were displaced from their homes.  Buildings were completely destroyed. Phone connections were down. The scene was, in short, total devastation. It was January 12, 2010—five years ago today—when a magnitude 7.0 earthquake rocked Port-au-Prince and forever changed Haiti.

This earthquake would have been calamitous and overwhelming anywhere, but in Haiti—a poor country with weak building infrastructure—it hit at the heart, in the populous capital city, creating a massive urban disaster.

USAID’s Haiti Earthquake Disaster Assistance Response Team Leader Tim Callaghan and USAID Administrator Raj Shah during the 2010 response.  / USAID.

USAID’s Haiti Earthquake Disaster Assistance Response Team Leader Tim Callaghan and USAID Administrator Raj Shah during the 2010 response. / USAID.

As Team Leader for USAID’s Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART), I deployed in the first 24 hours and witnessed firsthand the perfect storm of challenging response issues: no communication as all phone connections were down; 1.5 million people were instantly displaced, with no shelter; in seconds, children were orphaned; Haitian Government officials and local disaster responders were affected themselves; transportation was severely hampered by the rubble; there was a myriad of health and nutrition concerns; and death was everywhere.

USAID-supported programs helped remove more than 50% of the total rubble cleared by the international community. / U.S. Navy, Chief Mass Communication Specialist Robert J. Fluegel

USAID-supported programs helped remove more than 50% of the total rubble cleared by the international community. / U.S. Navy, Chief Mass Communication Specialist Robert J. Fluegel

Rubble literally filled the streets. We found out later that the earthquake had generated enough rubble to fill dump trucks lined up from Maine to Florida twice. On the ground, this meant major obstacles to delivering life-saving assistance. It also required our DART to have a large urban-search-and-rescue (USAR) component with over 500 USAR members at its peak. These teams worked tirelessly, crawling through broken buildings, to find and save people who were trapped inside. One of my proudest memories was being on site early one morning around 3 a.m. to see our USAR teams pull people out of the wreckage. It is something I will never forget.

Members of the Los Angeles County Fire Department Search and Rescue Team rescue a Haitian woman from a collapsed building in downtown Port-au-Prince. The woman had been trapped in the building for five days without food or water. / U.S. Navy, Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Justin Stumberg

Members of the Los Angeles County Fire Department Search and Rescue Team rescue a Haitian woman from a collapsed building in downtown Port-au-Prince. The woman had been trapped in the building for five days without food or water. / U.S. Navy, Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Justin Stumberg

In addition to so many Haitian lives tragically taken on that day, several American colleagues from the U.S. Embassy also perished—the first time I had ever worked on a disaster response where this was the case.

Yet it’s during times like the Haiti earthquake that I am so vividly inspired by the mandate of the office I work for—USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance—which is to save lives and alleviate human suffering. The DART did that in Haiti five years ago, rapidly providing humanitarian assistance and care to those in need. I was honored to manage a team of dedicated people who worked 20-hour days for weeks on end in grueling conditions.

Looking back, I also will never forget the incredible resilience and strength of the Haitian people. They lost so much, and yet were willing to roll up their sleeves amid all the tragedy to work with us in every way possible to build back their lives. The people of Ravine Pintade—one of the hardest hit areas—joined us and our partners Global Communities and Project Concern International to transform their devastated neighborhood into a model community.

Since 2010, USAID has continued to work together with the people of Haiti and their local and national governments traversing the long road from recovery to development and helping mitigate the damage of future crises. We’ve increased communities’ disaster resilience through preparedness and response planning, support to emergency operations centers and evacuation shelters, and small-scale infrastructure projects like retaining walls and drainage systems. We’ve also helped improve local capacity by training locals to handle disaster response efforts—everything from preparing first responders to designating leadership roles to managing relief supplies.

Haiti is vulnerable to many disasters including earthquakes, hurricanes, and flooding; but through these disaster risk reduction efforts, USAID is helping Haiti become more capable of preparing and responding to whatever disaster may strike next.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Tim Callaghan is the Senior Regional Advisor for Latin America and the Caribbean for USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance. During the 2010 Haiti earthquake response, Callaghan served as USAID’s Disaster Assistance Response Team Leader.

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Lessons Learned a Decade after the Indian Ocean Tsunami

Ten years ago today, the Indian Ocean tsunami roared across more than 3,000 miles and a dozen countries from Southeast Asia to Africa, killing 200,000 people and leaving 40,000 missing. I remember watching the news from my parents’ kitchen, in the aftermath of Christmas, as hour by hour the enormity of the disaster registered on the world.  And it was Aceh, a conflict affected province of Indonesia, that suffered the greatest impact, accounting for nearly half of the total casualties.

Eight days later, I was in Aceh.   I will never forget the surreal sights and stench of such massive destruction.  In a humid heat, bodies were still trapped beneath towers of debris and piled along the road.  Boats were in trees and houses were upended.  Survivors and humanitarian workers alike had a dazed look.

The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the worst natural disasters in recorded history, destroying lives, homes, and livelihoods. In the disaster’s immediate aftermath, USAID provided emergency support in the form of food, shelter, water, sanitation, and medical supplies. In the years that followed, USAID has continued to work alongside survivors to help affected communities rebuild and create jobs.

The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the worst natural disasters in recorded history, destroying lives, homes, and livelihoods. In the disaster’s immediate aftermath, USAID provided emergency support in the form of food, shelter, water, sanitation, and medical supplies. In the years that followed, USAID has continued to work alongside survivors to help affected communities rebuild and create jobs. / USAID

In the face of this utter tragedy, the world mobilized to save lives and reconstruct.  The tsunami generated an unprecedented outpouring of support from the international community. Indonesia received more than $7 billion in aid, the most generous response ever to a natural disaster.  In three years, Indonesia built new airports, roads, schools, and over 130,000 new homes.

USAID was front and center in the response, deploying a multi-country Disaster Assistance Response Team to the most affected areas immediately following the tsunami. USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance and Food for Peace provided more than $96 million in emergency support in the form of food, shelter, water, sanitation, and medical supplies. In the immediate aftermath USAID airlifted 20,000 kitchen sets, 20,000 mosquito nets, 8,400 ten-liter water containers, 2,000 hygiene kits, 230 rolls of plastic sheeting, and two 12,000-liter water bladders. Partners built or rehabilitated more than 1,600 water systems in villages throughout Aceh, benefitting more than 77,000 people. Repaired sewages systems and sanitation facilities improved hygiene conditions for over 90,000 people. In the years that followed, USAID has continued to work alongside survivors to help affected communities rebuild and create jobs.

So what have we learned since 2005? Below are six lessons that inform the way we respond to disasters a decade after the Indian Ocean tsunami:

1. Early Warning Leads to Early Action

Although there was a lag of several hours between the earthquake and the tsunami, almost all of the victims of the Indian Ocean tsunami were taken by surprise, because there were no early detection or early warning systems in place.   In the aftermath of the tsunami, USAID provided $16.6 million to support the development of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS), an integrated early warning and mitigation system that allows countries in the Indian Ocean region to detect and prepare for tsunamis and other coastal hazards. When the Banda Aceh earthquake struck in 2012, the IOTWS system successfully alerted communities across the Indian Ocean and millions of people were able to move away from the coastline.  As a result of these and other early warning efforts, countries and communities, USAID and its development partners are better prepared to respond and mitigate the impact of disasters before they strike.

In addition to aiding recovery and reconstruction, USAID has supported the development of a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean region to help governments detect and prepare for tsunamis in the future. / USAID

In addition to aiding recovery and reconstruction, USAID has supported the development of a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean region to help governments detect and prepare for tsunamis in the future. / USAID

2. Effective Civil-Military Cooperation is Essential

More than 15,000 U.S. soldiers participated in Operation Unified Assistance, the U.S. military’s response to the Indian Ocean tsunami.  Without the unique strategic and tactical lift capabilities of the military, we would not have reached remote places with life-saving supplies as quickly.  Yet, civil-military coordination was a major challenge, with 17 militaries and hundreds of international NGOs responding.  Over the past decade, UN agencies, donors, relief organizations, and the U.S. and other militaries have learned to coordinate more effectively on disaster responses, from the 2010 earthquake in Haiti to last year’s typhoon in the Philippines. USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is the designated U.S. government lead agency in disasters and has worked closely with the military and other U.S. government agencies to create a more seamless system for calling forward needed capabilities. In the current Ebola crisis, USAID and the U.S. military are working hand in glove to sustain an agile and effective response to one of the most complex emergencies of our time.

3. Focus on Jumpstarting Economies

In Aceh, Indonesia, USAID, in partnership with Chevron developed and hosted three-month vocational courses for hundreds of young people from the region, like Junaidi and Syahrizal (pictured). Courses ranged from welding and masonry to bookkeeping and automobile repair. These courses gave graduates the skills they needed to rebuild their communities, and also improved their ability to find jobs with higher wages. / USAID

In Aceh, Indonesia, USAID, in partnership with Chevron developed and hosted three-month vocational courses for hundreds of young people from the region, like Junaidi and Syahrizal (pictured). Courses ranged from welding and masonry to bookkeeping and automobile repair. These courses gave graduates the skills they needed to rebuild their communities, and also improved their ability to find jobs with higher wages. / USAID

In Indonesia, the 2004 tsunami completely razed coastal towns like Banda Aceh, but left others further from the shore untouched. The massive outpouring of aid in the aftermath of the tsunami provided life-saving relief to devastated communities, but also threatened to create a second crisis by smothering local markets that remained active across the country. The tsunami helped catalyze a greater understanding of the power of pivoting quickly from delivering commodities to a focus on using cash for work and other strategies to revive local markets.  USAID supported cash-for-work recovery projects that employed 70,000 people, and helped finance the construction of 278 fishing boats to revive Aceh’s fishing industry. In partnership with Chevron, USAID also developed and hosted three-month vocational courses for hundreds of young people in Aceh, like Junaidi and Syahrizal (pictured above). In the decade since the tsunami, the humanitarian community has increasingly recognized the value of cash-based approaches to emergency responses. USAID has continued to be a trailblazer in these efforts, using mobile e-payments and harnessing public-private partnerships to help jumpstart economies after a crisis, including in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan.

4. Give Cash, not Goods

The second stop on my 2005 trip was Sri Lanka, where I encountered a depot of donated goods—a new shipment of bikinis, ties and other donations clearly ill-suited to meet the needs of ordinary people trying to survive the aftermath of the tsunami. The outpouring of generosity after the Indian Ocean tsunami was truly impressive and unprecedented. However, it also led to massive “goodwill dumping,” as well-meaning people flooded the region with unnecessary goods that overwhelmed transit points and ended up as trash. As this experience and many other disasters have illustrated, donating cash instead of goods is always the best option, allowing victims to get the quickest access to basic items in local markets

5. Disasters Can Spur Conflict Resolution

The Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive social upheaval, uprooting the lives and livelihoods of hundreds of thousands of people.  Sinhalese and Tamil communities came together in Sri Lanka around the common enemy of a natural disaster.  In Sri Lanka, I saw an Office of Transition Initiatives program that brought together Sinhalese and Tamil youth to work side by side to clean the debris and rebuild their communities. And, recognizing that their own people needed to rebuild not fight, the Free Aceh movement signed a peace deal with the Indonesian government in August 2005. Indonesia’s experience sparks important lessons for how— if given the right circumstances and leaders willing to put their people first— disaster response can catalyze opportunities for peace and inclusive governance.

6. Build Resilience

Most importantly, we know that tsunamis, typhoons, droughts and other shocks will continue to batter communities, hitting the most vulnerable the hardest.  Since 2011, USAID has been at the forefront of a global conversation on building resilience.  We know that all our development gains can be wiped out in an instance if households, communities, countries and regions are not better able to adapt, prepare, and recover from the shocks we know will continue to occur. That is why in partnership with the Rockefeller Foundation and Swedish sida, we launched the Global Resilience Partnership, which will drive evidence-based investments and innovations that enable cities, communities, and households to better manage and adapt to inevitable shocks.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Nancy Lindborg is the USAID Assistant Administrator for the Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. Follow her @nancylindborg

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U.S. Opens New Ebola Clinic in Liberia

Liberia is in the midst of a building boom to help control the spread of Ebola. In support of the Liberian Government’s Ebola response strategy, the United States is in the process of constructing 15 Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in this hard-hit nation. Across the country, teams of workers are busy moving dirt, laying concrete, trucking in construction materials, and erecting large white tents.

The first ETU to be built and staffed by the U.S.—in the city of Tubmanburg—started receiving patients on November 18. Now, a second ETU supported by the United States is operational in the city of Kakata, about 45 miles northeast of Monrovia. Built by the organization Save the Children with support from USAID, the ETU is being run by International Medical Corps (IMC), which is also managing another ETU in Bong County, Liberia.

Members of USAID’s Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) visited the site on November 22, joining a Liberian delegation that included the Assistant Minister of Health and county health officials. Below is an inside look at the USAID-supported ETU, including those areas that are currently off limits to cameras now that the facility is open to Ebola patients.

11.22.14-Kakata-ETU-sign-photo-credit-Justin-Pendarvis-USAID-OFDA About an hour’s drive northeast of Monrovia, in the heart of Liberia’s rubber cultivation belt, the second Ebola treatment unit (ETU) in Liberia to be constructed and staffed with U.S. Government assistance is now receiving patients. / Justin Pendarvis, USAID/OFDA


The facility was built by Save the Children with USAID providing construction materials, gravel, cots for patients, generators to power the ETU, and other support.  The red fencing separates public areas from Ebola “hot zones.” Photo courtesy: Justin Pendarvis, USAID/OFDA The facility was built by Save the Children with USAID providing construction materials, gravel, cots for patients, generators to power the ETU, and other support. The red fencing separates public areas from Ebola “hot zones.” / Justin Pendarvis, USAID/OFDA


USAID is funding International Medical Corps (IMC) to operate the ETU in Kakata. Here, USAID Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) Deputy Justin Pendarvis (left) gets a tour from IMC Emergency Response Team Director Sean Casey (right). / Alisha McMichael, USAID/OFDA USAID is funding International Medical Corps (IMC) to operate the ETU in Kakata. Here, USAID Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) Deputy Justin Pendarvis (left) gets a tour from IMC Emergency Response Team Director Sean Casey (right). / Alisha McMichael, USAID/OFDA


More than 160 people—mostly Liberian national staff—work at the ETU. For the past two weeks, IMC’s medical team received rigorous training on Ebola patient care, safety protocols, and ETU management. Photo courtesy: Alisha McMichael, USAID/OFDA More than 160 people—mostly Liberian national staff—work at the ETU. For the past two weeks, IMC’s medical team received rigorous training on Ebola patient care, safety protocols, and ETU management. / Alisha McMichael, USAID/OFDA


The 88-bed ETU, which opened on November 22, has received a number of patients. Some were discharged after testing negative for Ebola. Photo courtesy: Alisha McMichael, USAID/OFD The 88-bed ETU, which opened on November 22, has received a number of patients. Some were discharged after testing negative for Ebola. / Alisha McMichael, USAID/OFD


NO DETAIL OVERLOOKED: Inside the clinical care areas are electrical outlets where patients can play music or charge their cell phones to keep in touch with their loved ones. USAID provided generators to power the ETU. / IMC NO DETAIL OVERLOOKED: Inside the clinical care areas are electrical outlets where patients can play music or charge their cell phones to keep in touch with their loved ones. USAID provided generators to power the ETU. / IMC

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

The Ebola Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) is overseeing the U.S. Ebola response efforts in West Africa. The DART includes staff from across the U.S. Government, including USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Departments of Defense and Health and Human Services.

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