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International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting

February 6th marks the tenth observance of the International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C), an internationally recognized day to foster awareness of the devastating effects of FGM/C and renew the call for the abandonment of this harmful traditional practice. FGM/C is a practice that ranges from nicking to total removal of the external female genitalia. Some 140 million women around the world have undergone this brutal procedure and three million girls are at risk every year.

This 10thanniversary, I’d like to take a look back over progress achieved in the past decade. Significant efforts have been made at the community, national, and international levels to address the issue of FGM/C. Studies have looked at the physical, emotional and mental impacts of FGM/C. Research has deepened our understanding of the diverse reasons for the continuation of the practice, providing a frame for theories about the origins and social dynamics that lead to its continuation. Reflecting the work of dedicated advocates, today most practicing countries have passed laws banning the practice, and prevalence is beginning to decline in some countries.

An estimated 140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting. Photo credit: Panos

In September 2000, USAID officially incorporated elimination of FGM/C into its development agenda and created the official U.S. Government policy toward FGM/C.  In 2002, the Donors Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting was formed to bring together key international actors, including representatives from USAID, U.N. agencies, European donors and private funders.

In February 2003, the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children held its landmark conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Many first ladies of Africa, led by the first lady of Nigeria, officially declared “Zero Tolerance to FGM” to be commemorated every year on February 6th. Drawing from this energy, UNICEF’s Innocenti Research Center organized a consultation in 2004, resulting in a seminal publication, “Changing A Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.”

In 2008, the Donors Working Group ultimately produced A Platform for Action Toward the Abandonment of FGM/C (PDF).  That same year, UNFPA and UNICEF formed a strategic partnership known as the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on FGM/C’s “Accelerating Change“. They have been working together, in headquarters and field offices, to develop, fund, and implement policies and programs to accelerate abandonment of FGM/C. The result of this program should inform the work of programs and governments for years to come.

In December 2012, the 67th session of the United Nation’s General Assembly passed a wide-reaching resolution urging States to condemn all harmful practices that affect women and girls, in particular Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.

While we have made tremendous progress over the past decade, work still lies ahead.  We must all work together – men, women, grandfathers, grandmothers, community and religious leaders, government, civil society, and multilateral organizations – to overturn deeply entrenched social norms that are not only harmful to women and girls, but to our communities and societies.

Join us on February 6th at 9:30am EST for a live webchat discussion at the State Department. The event will include a panel of experts and practitioners, as well as a discussion on programs and solutions to address this issue. Follow @USAIDGH on Twitter and join the conversation using the hashtag #EndFGM/C.

Better Than Cash: Project Update

Through foreign aid, the United States helps to lift millions out of poverty, creating a path to prosperity through education and training, and supporting American interests here at home. But because half of the world operates without a formal banking system, assistance often reaches farmers, employees, and families as cash-in-hand. Cash is messy. It puts people at risk of theft, enables graft, and takes time (and additional money) to transport. We can do better.

We need to find ways to help the 2.5 billion adults who manage their money primarily as cash to leapfrog into a cashless marketplace.

Afghan men listen as a representative from M-Paisa, or mobile money, describes how mobile bill pay works. Photo credit: FAIDA

To accelerate the replacement of cash with inclusive electronic payments, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) created the Better Than Cash Alliance, a group of countries and private companies all over the world committed to solving the “messy cash” problem. In keeping with this effort to accelerate the replacement of cash with inclusive electronic payments, our White House-supported Presidential Innovation Fellow (PIF) decided to focus on Afghanistan; a country dominated by a cash economy.  In Afghanistan, the cost of building out a traditional banking structure is prohibitive in the largely rural, often insecure country. But almost all Afghans now have cell phones. The near-ubiquity of mobile phone coverage offers a tantalizing opportunity to connect millions of Afghans to the economy and move both public and private sector payments into efficient, transparent “cash” channels.

However, expansion of mobile money was running into two problems. One was getting critical mass adoption. Think about the early days when few had cell phones and there was no one to call. And the second problem was interoperability. Mobile money would catch on like wildfire, if only you could send or receive cash electronically no matter which mobile operator you subscribed to.

Mobile payment services were first introduced to the Afghan market in 2009 by the largest mobile network operator, Roshan, who launched a product that essentially tried to replicate Safaricom’s phenomenally successful M-Pesa mobile money transfer service in Kenya.  Though operationally successful and a proven tool for reducing corruption (as demonstrated by a pilot program to pay police by mobile instead of cash that netted a 30% increase in received salary for the officers), getting more government ministries to pay their employees was proving too slow.

USAID, through an innovation fund of public-private partnerships, addressed the adoption problem; we decided to simultaneously take on the interoperability problem. Today, phone companies in Afghanistan don’t typically function cooperatively—they don’t provide “roaming” services, for example— and aren’t equipped to share user minutes across networks. The same problem will hinder the growth of the broader mobile money sector if each phone company’s mobile money service develops in a silo, and customers are unable to transact with peers and businesses using other networks. We also know that a mobile-money ecosystem can only grow if managers on the ground can effectively track and evaluate cash-flow to employees. In the United States, Federal employees are paid electronically every month, in full, and on time. We want to work with our Afghan government partners to ensure that Afghan public employees receive the same—and this will require tools to better evaluate and manage information.

Today, 100,000 Afghan teachers still receive their salaries in cash, a cumbersome process that often results in delayed and incomplete payments. That’s why we created a text-message survey tool which ministries and program officers can use to ask employees whether they have been paid correctly, and begin building a database of phone numbers as employees transition to mobile paychecks. We’ve also worked on solutions to drive broad adoption of mobile phone-based financial services. Getting paid by mobile phone is great, but if basic life necessities can only be bought with cash—then a cashless marketplace will not flourish. USAID’s on-the-ground mission in Afghanistan enables Afghans to sign up to pay their electric bills via mobile phone, vastly improving convenience for customers and beginning to improve revenue collection, a critical requirement for maintain and expanding access to the electrical grid. So far, more than 100,000 individuals have joined the program.

Many countries around the world could benefit from an enhanced mobile-money marketplace.  In fact, Tanzania and Indonesia (PDF) are already working to build their own electronic payment ecosystems. There is much more work to be done. As we continue to lay a framework and accelerate progress in Afghanistan, we plan to share lessons learned with other countries and work toward a more efficient foreign aid system that is, in many ways, better than cash.

Karl Mehta is a Presidential Innovation Fellow working on Better Than Cash at USAID.

Seth Wainer is a Program Analyst at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Learn more about or apply for the Presidential Innovation Fellows program. 

Trilateral Development: “We” Is Much Bigger Than “Us”

Mark Lopes is Deputy Assistant Administrator for Latin America and Caribbean

This originally appeared on Chilean International Cooperation Agency’s website

Success for Latin America and the Caribbean means that the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) must work itself out of a job.  Our goal is to set the stage for people to prosper – economically, independently, and institutionally.  We want to support governments and civil society to make this a reality.  Maybe the biggest change in the Latin American and Caribbean region in the last decade, is that we is much bigger than us, and our ability to help is therefore greater than ever.

In the era of scarce expertise and few resources, USAID may have worked alone.  Today, with public and private resources flowing faster and farther in every direction, and governments in the region with broad evidence of success, USAID has adjusted what we mean by we.  Now, it means everyone with a stake in the outcome and anyone with something to offer.  After all, isn’t it better to learn from those who have succeeded through similar challenges?

Enter Chile, Colombia, and Brazil –trendsetters in the region in many respects.  In terms of development progress, they have much to offer. Through trilateral cooperation, if a country has expertise that other countries in the region can benefit from, USAID is happy to be a connector, contributor, and facilitator in that process.

In recent years, Chile, in partnership with USAID, served as a trainer for counterparts at the Paraguayan customs agency, showcasing the Chilean experience as a model.  The three countries worked together to strengthen the internal controls of the agency.  Similarly, the three partnered to help Paraguay improve its export promotion agency: USAID supported the development of a registry of exporting firms; Chile shared its export promotion capability by providing training; and Paraguay implemented a web-enabled database for the export registry and data from Customs.

This year, Chile and the United States will improve livestock health and food safety in El Salvador.  Similar arrangements in areas ranging from violence against women to agricultural technology are evolving with Brazil in Haiti and with Colombia in Guatemala.

USAID wants to exhaust the ability of every country in the Americas to learn from any country in the Americas.  When we do that, and when people can thrive on their own, USAID programs can shut down.  When this happens, we all have a reason to celebrate.

National Freedom Day: A Commitment to End Modern Slavery

Sarah Mendelson serves as deputy assistant administrator for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance

This originally appeared on the White House Blog

Today is National Freedom Day, commemorating President Lincoln’s signing of the joint resolution that led to the Constitution’s 13th Amendment banning slavery in the United States. It is a day when freedom for all Americans is celebrated. Yet, almost 150 years later, while one form of slavery has been abolished in our country, another has quietly flourished around the world.

From forced labor to sex trafficking to child soldiers, modern slavery entails the use of force, fraud, or coercion of another for the purposes of exploitation. An estimated 20 million men, women and children around the world, including thousands in the United States, are living in bondage, confirming that the fight to end slavery is far from over. Today we reflect on what we’ve accomplished and recommit ourselves to what President Obama called “one of the great human rights causes of our time.”

USAID has been committed to combating human trafficking for over a decade, programming more than $180 million in nearly 70 countries since 2001. Our efforts are part of a larger government-wide approach that has involved nearly every federal department and agency. Today, we are expanding our commitment, answering President Obama’s call to end this barbaric human rights offense.

A year ago at the White House, we launched a new Counter-Trafficking in Persons Policy (C-TIP) (PDF), focusing on concrete, measurable principles and objectives that include increasing institutional accountability within USAID and leveraging innovation, 21st century technology, and partnerships to combat trafficking.

With procurement specialists and legal advisors, we have created a Standard Operating Procedure to bolster compliance with USAID’s Code of Conduct (PDF), holding our employees, contractors, and grantees to the highest standards of behavior. We’re training our workforce to recognize and report human trafficking incidents; all USAID employees must report suspected violations. We’re increasing protections against abuses prior to awarding contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements, and we’re responding to allegations of abuse swiftly and decisively.

Our team was also proud to play an active role in the whole-of-government effort, led by the White House, to put in place the President’s Executive Order 13627 on Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts.

The U.S. Government recognizes that no country or government alone can end modern slavery. It will take people and organizations outside of government. That’s why we are especially eager to engage young people and students who are uniquely qualified and positioned to help stimulate change through 21st century technology. Traffickers are using technology, like online classified ads, social networking sites, and SMS texting, to lure victims. We want to harness technology to combat these criminals.

In October 2012, a few short weeks after President Obama’s moving speech on human trafficking at the Clinton Global Initiative, USAID Administrator Dr. Raj Shah launched Challenge Slavery, a Campus Challenge, at Pepperdine University. The Campus Challenge invited students and scholars on campuses across the United States and around the world to submit innovative, forward-looking solutions to prevent trafficking, rescue victims, and provide support to survivors.

We cannot wait to announce the winners this March, though perhaps most exciting is the opportunity to grow a global network of C-TIP champions.

2012 was truly an incredible year for USAID and the world-wide counter-trafficking movement. We trained hundreds of government and social workers on protecting the rights of trafficking victims in Cambodia; we watched as 70,000 young people gathered in the People’s Square in Burma for a historic MTV EXIT counter-trafficking concert; and we were there when ten South Eastern European countries adopted a shared Standard Operating Procedure to care for trafficking victims.

While there will be obstacles, I believe 2013 will yield even more progress. We still need more data to better tailor our C-TIP programs and establish concrete baselines so we can measure progress and results. We need to better understand the combination of variables that enable certain actors to engage in C-TIP activities, and the impact of our interventions, so we can replicate what works and learn from what doesn’t.

But the momentum is truly building. Someday soon I hope February 1st will be known as “International Freedom Day,” celebrating the end of modern slavery around the world.

Sarah Mendelson is Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict & Humanitarian Assistance at USAID.

Nurturing Rule of Law in Young Uzbekistan

Judge John R. Tunheim (U.S. District Court of Minnesota) has traveled to Uzbekistan nine times in the span of 10 years to share his experience in the areas of rule of law and human rights. He returned to Uzbekistan in October and November 2012 to conduct training with Uzbek prosecutors and to participate in a conference marking the 20th anniversary of the Uzbek constitution. His visits were sponsored by a USAID program to improve the technical knowledge and practical skills of justice system stakeholders in Uzbekistan. Judge Tunheim looks back on his experience in working with the Uzbek justice system over the past decade in the following blog.

When I first visited Uzbekistan more than 10 years ago, the purpose was to engage the Uzbeks —government officials, journalists, judges and advocates—in a dialogue about human rights and international standards.

In Tashkent and the lovely regional cities, usually over green tea, we talked. Independent judges, arrest warrants, treatment of prisoners, open courtrooms, criminal defense, free media—these were our topics.

The Uzbeks I have met have always been friendly and welcoming, with frank and open discussions. It takes time and patience to build trust and familiarity. Our wonderful discussions ended in 2005 when doors were closed. But the doors were not locked, and when I returned to Tashkent in 2008, Uzbekistan had made significant changes. The death penalty was abolished and judges must approve arrests. I was impressed!

Judge John R. Tunheim (second from right) and fellow trainer, former prosecutor David Hackney, relax with Uzbek prosecutors as they learn about the American judicial system. Photo credit: USAID

I recently returned to Uzbekistan for my eighth and ninth visits. It’s exciting; the door for conversation is opening and my old friends are talking once again. Working with USAID and its NGO partner, Regional Dialogue, we discussed human rights and the evolving legal system. The Uzbeks have plans for more positive changes.

The Republic of Uzbekistan is barely 20 years old, celebrating now the anniversary of its constitution. Progress may feel slow in a world accustomed to a faster pace, but Uzbekistan is young. It is my hope that we can nurture the rule of law with both patience and persistence. Judges, in particular, need and want human rights training.

I once heard an American diplomat say that we work with our principles and their practicalities. In Uzbekistan, I would modify that wise rule: world principles and Uzbek practicalities. When we understand each other and build trust, we make progress. And I am convinced that progress is ahead in Uzbekistan.

Ten Things You Should Know About the State Department and USAID

This originally appeared in a fact sheet from the U.S. Department of State.

What do the U.S. Department of State and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) do for the American people? With just over one percent of the entire federal budget, we have a huge impact on how Americans live and how the rest of the world engages with America. For example:

1. We create American jobs. We directly support 20 million U.S. jobs by promoting new and open markets for U.S. firms, protecting intellectual property, negotiating new U.S. airline routes worldwide, and competing for foreign government and private contracts.

2. We support American citizens abroad. In 2011, we provided emergency assistance to U.S. citizens in countries experiencing natural disasters or civil unrest. We assisted in 9,393 international adoptions and worked on more than 1,700 child abduction cases — resulting in the return of over 660 American children.

3. We promote democracy and foster stability around the world. Stable democracies are less likely to pose a threat to their neighbors or to the United States. In South Sudan, Libya and many other countries we worked through various means to foster democracy and peace.

4. We help to make the world a safer place. Together with Russia, under the New START Treaty, we are reducing the number of deployed nuclear weapons to levels not seen since the 1950s. Our nonproliferation programs have destroyed stockpiles of missiles, munitions and material that can be used to make a nuclear weapon. The State Department has helped more than 40 countries clear millions of square meters of landmines.

5. We save lives. Strong bipartisan support for U.S. global health investments has led to worldwide progress against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, smallpox and polio. Better health abroad reduces the risk of instability and enhances our national security.

6. We help countries feed themselves. We help other countries plant the right seeds in the right way and get crops to markets to feed more people. Strong agricultural sectors lead to more stable countries.

7. We help in times of crisis. From earthquakes in Haiti, Japan and Chile to famine in the Horn of Africa, our dedicated emergency professionals deliver assistance to those who need it most.

8. We promote the rule of law and protect human dignity. We help people in other countries find freedom and shape their own destinies. Reflecting U.S. values, we advocate for the release of prisoners of conscience, prevent political activists from suffering abuse, train police officers to combat sex trafficking and equip journalists to hold their governments accountable.

9. We help Americans see the world. In 2011, we issued 12.6 million passports and passport cards for Americans to travel abroad. We facilitate the lawful travel of international students, tourists and business people to the U.S., adding greatly to our economy. We keep Americans apprised of dangers or difficulties abroad through our travel warnings.

10. We are the face of America overseas. Our diplomats, development experts, and the programs they implement are the source of American leadership around the world. They are the embodiments of our American values abroad. They are a force for good in the world.

For a very small investment the State Department and USAID yield a large return by advancing U.S. national security, promoting our economic interests, and reaffirming our country’s exceptional role in the world.

Assistant Secretary Anne Richard and Assistant Administrator Nancy Lindborg Meet With Syrian Refugees

This originally appeared on the U.S. Department of State’s Dipnote.

Assistant Secretary Anne Richard traveled to the refugee camps in Turkey with Assistant Administrator Nancy Lindborg. Read more about their trip. 

U.S. Ambassador to Syria Robert Ford, Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees, and Migration Anne C. Richard, and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Assistant Administrator for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance Nancy Lindborg visited a refugee camp for Syrians in Turkey. While there, they met with Turkish partners and assistance providers to discuss the needs of Syrian refugees and ongoing humanitarian assistance efforts.

The U.S. delegation commended the generosity of the Government of Turkey and the Turkish people, and recognized the Turkish Red Crescent for its tireless efforts to provide protection and assistance to Syrians affected by the crisis. Assistant Secretary Richard said, “I come away very impressed by the way the Turkish government has provided so much to the Syrian refugees. Many of the Syrians with whom I spoke today are very grateful to the government of Turkey, to the people of Turkey.”

“We are working to ensure that if more people come out of Syria they will also get a reception like this,” Assistant Secretary Richard said. “We are supporting the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. USAID is working with the World Food Programme so we want to continue the ability for refugees to cross open borders and get the help they need. They are not alone, they are supported by the United States and the American funding is coming through international organizations, to reach them, and to help them, and to help their compatriots.”

Assistant Administrator Lindborg said, “…We have prioritized getting critical winter assistance in. It’s cold right now and we know that when you’re displaced and you’ve had to leave your home suddenly that you need essential blankets, carpets, warm clothing, plastic sheeting, ways to help families survive the winter. We will have reached 460,000 people, particularly in the northern parts of Syria with that kind of help by the end of this month. We know that’s not enough. This is a crisis of enormous proportions. We are moving aggressively to provide additional assistance. We call on other countries to do the same.”

The United States is providing food aid, medical supplies, emergency and basic health care, shelter materials, clean water, hygiene education and supplies, and other relief supplies — including blankets and heaters — to help millions of people affected by the crisis in Syria. More than two and a half million people in Syria are in need of humanitarian assistance, approximately 1.2 million people are internally displaced, and over half a million people have fled to the neighboring countries of Jordan, Turkey, Lebanon, and Iraq.

Germany’s Renewed Support: Another Leap Forward for the Global Fund

Germany’s Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development, Dirk Niebel, announced at a World Economic Forum news conference in Davos, Switzerland on January 24 that Germany will contribute 1 billion euros ($1.35 billion USD) to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for the period of 2012 to 2016. As the third largest donor to the Global Fund, Germany has contributed $1.785 billion since the Global Fund’s creation in 2002, with approximately $259 million contributed in 2012. Another leap forward for the Global Fund, the Federal Republic of Germany’s commitment and renewed support will allow the organization to continue to further its mission to halt the spread of these highly infectious diseases.

The Global Fund employs an innovative approach to prevent and treat HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Based on country ownership and performance-based funding, the Global Fund’s model provides resources to developing countries so that they can implement their own programs. Through more than 1,000 programs in 151 countries, Global Fund support has provided 4.2 million people with antiretroviral treatment, detected and treated 9.7 million new cases of infectious tuberculosis, and distributed 310 million insecticide-treated nets to protect families from malaria transmission.

The Global Fund’s Executive Director Mark Dybul, Bill Gates, and German Minister of Economic Cooperation and Development Dirk Niebel announce Germany’s EUR 1 billion commitment to the Global Fund at the World Economic Forum in Davos. Photo credit: The Global Fund

USAID, through PEPFAR, and alongside many donor countries such as Germany, has been a strong supporter of the Global Fund since its inception. Having endured a period of structural transformation and leadership transition, it is more and more apparent that the Global Fund will continue to enact the necessary changes to ensure that grant processes reduce risk and enable countries with the greatest need to access the critical funds they need to continue the fight.

In particular, USAID appreciates the close collaboration with its German Government counterparts in improving Global Fund grant implementation through technical assistance efforts. Since 2007, USAID has provided urgent solutions to countries experiencing bottlenecks in their Global Fund grants through the Grant Management Solutions (GMS) project. GMS has established an effective relationship with the German BACKUP Initiative—Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit. Through the Office of HIV/AIDS, USAID regularly coordinates technical assistance efforts with the German GIZ-BACKUP program to reduce overlap and improve global reach of technical support to the Global Fund. We welcome the opportunity to expand this important collaboration in the months ahead.

Given the positive steps that the Global Fund has taken and is expected to take under Executive Director Mark Dybul’s leadership, we encourage all countries to honor their pledges to the Global Fund, especially during this time of transition to the new funding model.

The Story Behind the Headline: Investments in Implementation Science Tackle HIV Prevention in Swaziland

The incidence of HIV in Swaziland has stabilized, but the country continues to have the world’s highest estimated prevalence rate of HIV-infected adults. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 26 percent of adults aged 15 to 49-years old in Swaziland are HIV-positive. USAID, through PEPFAR, is partnering with ICAP, a global health center at Columbia University, to evaluate an innovative approach to HIV prevention in countries like Swaziland. The study is one of three pilots in the country described in The Lancet article ”HIV prevention: new pilots for beleaguered Swaziland,” published on January 12.

The article describes Swaziland’s efforts to answer a critical HIV prevention question: How can the high efficacy of antiretroviral-based prevention found in clinical trials be translated into effective programs? In other words, how can we turn science into practice? By evaluating different approaches to providing HIV treatment for HIV+ women, USAID’s partnership with ICAP will help answer this question for one of the groups made most vulnerable by the epidemic: pregnant women living with HIV.

The story behind the headline? USAID’s partnership with ICAP is part of an over $20 million investment in implementation science made by the Agency and as part of outgoing Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s vision for an AIDS-free generation. Through the Annual Program Statement (APS) “Implementation Science Research to Support Programs under PEPFAR,” USAID supports eight studies in eight of the African countries hardest hit by HIV/AIDS. In addition to addressing the critical HIV prevention question posed in The Lancet article, the scope of the APS provides a unique opportunity to fund cutting-edge research in a wide range of HIV-specific program areas. These studies aim to improve programs across the prevention, care, and treatment continuum. Data gathered will support efforts to prevent new infections and save lives.

As stated in the recent PEPFAR Blueprint (PDF), “Science must continue to guide our efforts” and “it is science that will underpin all our efforts to achieve the goal [of an AIDS-free generation] and save even more lives.” USAID’s commitment and investments in implementation science are a driving force in these efforts.

Learn more about USAID’s investments in implementation science in the Issue Brief “Implementation Science Research to Support Programs under PEPFAR.”

Contribute to the search for innovations to address key implementation science questions. The second round of the APS solicitation is public and the deadline for concept paper submissions is January 30, 2013. USAID anticipates awarding up to an additional $11 million of funding through the second round, with the maximum for a single application set at $1.8 million over three years.

Photo of the Week: State and USAID Visit WFP Distribution Center in Jordan

Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees, and Migration Anne C. Richard and USAID Assistant Administrator for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance Nancy Lindborg visit a World Food Programme Distribution Center in Amman, Jordan, where refugees living in host communities receive vouchers on January 27, 2013. They can use these vouchers to shop for their families in local supermarkets. Photos from  State Department.

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